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Tuesday, November 19th.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 201
Professor
Jay Makarenko
Semester
Fall

Description
CULTURE AND POLITICS Nov. 19 TUES: National Minorities and Self­determination THUR: Immigration and Multiculturalism  TODAY’S LECTURE: 1. Liberal Democracy and Cultural Politics 2. Quebec and Self­determination  3. Aboriginals and Self­determination  LIBERAL DEMOCRACY AND LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY  ­ Liberal democratic theory is based on a particular idea about how political power ought  to be organized. Concept of Legal Authority: Citizens voluntarily obey because they respect the rules governing the exercise of power. Rules in the Exercise of Power: Liberalism­ Respective for individual freedom and equality Democracy: Citizen participation in political decision­making LIBERAL DEMOCRACY AND CULTURAL POLITICS Cultural Pluralism: ­Modern liberal democratic societies represent a plurality of different cultural, religious  and ethnic groups. ­These groups have very different views about morality, society, and politics. Cultural Relations: ­Moreover, there is an inequality between different cultural groups in terms of their  social, political, and economic power in society. ­System of dominant/majority and subordinate/ CULTURAL, INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND EQUALITY Liberal democracies often attempt to manage cultural politics through its guarantees of  individual freedom and formal equality Individual Freedom: Governments must respect basic freedoms that are important to  cultural practices CULTURE AND SELF­DETERMINATION Some cultural groups, however, also seek self­determination in order to protect and  promote their cultural practices and groups Concept of Self­Determination: ­Ability for a group to internally self­determine their own social, economic and political  development ­Requires special institutional structures to provide political decision­making power to  specific group Canadian Context: Several groups in Canada have demanded (and have achieved) self­determination within  Canada. Ex. Aboriginals and Quebec. SELF­DETERMINATION AND LEGITIMACY These demands for self­determination are critical for the idea of legitimacy for these  groups.  Groups will not voluntarily obey unless special institutional arrangements are in place to  guarantee self­determination. Majority Group Perspective_ ­Other citizens. However, often view special rights and institutional arrangements for  some groups as unfair and illegitimate. ­All citizens should be treated equally, regardless of their cultural background QUEBEC AND SELF­DTERMINATION ­Quebec demands for self­determination are as old as Canada ­Stem from the fact that Canada is founded on the combining of two distinct cultural and  ethnic groups: English and French Foundations: Distinct Society ­Quebec tends to ground its claim to self­determination on the idea that it represents a  distinct society within Canada • Distinct sociological groups • Distinct historical groups DISTINCT MINORITY GROUP Quebec is a minority group that is socially, culturally and linguistically distinct from the  dominant group (English Canada) Examples: ­Language: French as opposed to English ­Religion: Catholic as opposed to Protestant ­Political Institutions: civil law system as opposed to common law ­Political Culture: more egalitarian/social democratic/  collective DISTINCT HISTORICAL GROUP ­Quebec perceive themselves as having a unique historical relationship with Canada;  setes them apart from other groups and provinces. ­Minority sociological group that was involuntarily absorbed into Canada New France; Absorbed Through Conquest ­Seven Years War (1756­1763): Global war between European empires (In particular,  British v. French).  North American Context: In modern day Canada, British defeat French In the Battle of  Plains of Abraham near Quebec city (1759) ­Quebec RIGHT TO SELF­DETERMINATION As a distinct culture that was involuntarily absorbed in Canada, Quebecers are entitled to  the right to self­determination • Independent control their own cultural, economic, social and political  development (free from interference from dominant English culture) • Requires some measure of political autonomy and power for Quebec. Federal Approach: Quebec is entitled to special powers and privileges necessary to ensure  self­government within Canada (jurisdictional authority) Sovereigns Approach: Self­determination can only be guaranteed via national  independence and political separation from Canada.  RECENT ATTEMPTS TO ACCOMOMDATE QUEBEC In the 1990s Canada federal and provincial governments undertook constitutional  negotiations with Quebec to accommodate its demands from self­government Meech Lake a
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