3. Decline of the Imperial Powers
Protectionism and the breakdown of international trade
Stock market crash
eliminates wealth that had previously exited, around the world.
High levels of poverty and unemployment
Raises questions about the efficacy of the unregulated capitalist market.
Cost of WW II
Schools and hospitals
Shipyards and airports
Homelessness. Not only you have high rates of infrastructure damage but you also have a whole numbers
of soldiers that come back and have no place to live.
Unemployment. Soldiers have no where to work, factories are destroyed, everything is.
Breakdown of agriculture system. Starvation
Adverse weather conditions
(European) states emerge form the war financially spent heavily indebted.
Legitimacy crisis. 4. United Nations
Trusteeship Council. A number of states third world coming up with this granting if independence and it
makes the UN recognize the right of selfdetermination.
Declaration on the Granting of independence to colonial countries and Peoples (1960)
Right of the peoples to national selfdetermination
Special Committee on Decolonization (1962)
5. Cold War
American and Soviet opposition to imperialism
AmericanSoviet competition with remaining imperial powers
SovietAmerican intervention in civil wars
Support to national liberation movements
SovietAmerican geopolitical rivalry over access to newly independent states. They want access so they
have to support decolonization so they have the access to the developing world that they want.
6. National Liberation Struggles. No longer their interest to hold onto states so they voluntarily let go of
them and grant them selfdetermination but there were some that don’t want to give them up. Example its
France with Algeria and Indochina so groups within this colonial societies are formed seeking liberation and
decolonization. They are willing to use force to achieve their goal so the imperial powers are forced to do as
Liberal approach to development. When we speak about modernization largely its extremely bias to favour
Focuses on development of societies in the Global South. Largely on the basis of critical theory approaches
Post war theory of development.
1950s and 1960S Way to explain development in the West. By the end of the Cold War modernization theory was the main
way of explaining dev’t.
They wanted a way of explaining development and also provide a way of getting them out of their
underdeveloped situation so they can enter the capitalist world
Dev’t is aprocess of becoming. Process of transition, undergo a series of changes that eventually
makes them prosperous and developed.
Unidirectional. The process consists of going from undeveloped, backwards, traditional to modern and
developed. It works in one direction, forwards. Its progressive.
Progressive. A normative bias. To become developed it’s a preferred thing. To be undeveloped its bad, to
be modern is good. You shift from a state that is undesirable to something that is better and ideal. The more
you move progressive an