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POLI 359 (16)
Mark Baron (15)


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University of Calgary
Political Science
POLI 359
Mark Baron

Democracy Liberal Democratic Capitalist State  Is it universal or unique?  Unique – make the argument that democracy is not transplantable from where it originally emerged. Example: Western Europe. Unless you can replicate conditions elsewhere, the odds of establishing it elsewhere other than Europe or places settled by Europe is highly unlikely.  Universal – can be translated. If it is done appropriately and has the support of the individuals to whom democracy is deferred and by the ones conferring democracy, it is possible to create a democratic regime. Core Characteristics of Democracy  Political accountability o Accountability has to be practiced downward. Link between elite and those people being governed over.  Political Competition o Elections o Meet a minimum of three criteria: free, frequent, fair.  Political Rights o Right of individuals to organize parties and groups  Political Equality o Universal adult suffrage (right to vote) franchise. Supporting Characteristics  Civil society o Network of voluntarily organized institutions in society that enjoy autonomy from the state and through which individuals and groups represent themselves to the state and to each other. o School of democracy o Bulwark of democracy o Government is dependent on society resources.  Rule of law o Idea of rule of law other than individuals o Enshrined law. Political law establish by legal practice.  Compliant Bureaucracy o Day to day administrations of the state. o Unelected, unaccountable, governmental experts that not only advise on decisions but also individuals that make government work on a daily basis. o Fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of 4 key characteristics. o Do what they are told by elected accountable governors.  Autonomous economic sphere o Some say you should collapse this into civil society o State merely acting as an arbitrator upholding contracts Fundamental Factors to engender democracy  Political culture o Democratic political culture o Society must be inclined towards democracy o Leaders who hold and exercise the power must favour the maintenance and creation of democracy. o Have tolerance and respect for compromise. Positive sum, not zero sum.  Civil-Military Relations o Civilian control – power between the civil sector and the military sector, and in this civilians are dominated and the military is sub-ordinate. The civilian sector must have meaningful authority over the military. Civilian leaders meaningfully determine the organized, function and resources of the military, and they can do this without fear of military relations.  Penetration Model – Supported by the rule of law. Democratic control refers to when the military is subordinate to democratically elected civilian control. Model of civilian control  applies to totalitarian regimes (e.g. China, Nazi Germany, USSR)  Within these societies there is a tremendous fear of Bonapartism. This word refers to Napoleon, who used the military to o
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