Liberal Democratic Capitalist State
Is it universal or unique?
Unique – make the argument that democracy is not
transplantable from where it originally emerged. Example:
Western Europe. Unless you can replicate conditions
elsewhere, the odds of establishing it elsewhere other than
Europe or places settled by Europe is highly unlikely.
Universal – can be translated. If it is done appropriately and
has the support of the individuals to whom democracy is
deferred and by the ones conferring democracy, it is possible
to create a democratic regime.
Core Characteristics of Democracy
o Accountability has to be practiced downward. Link
between elite and those people being governed over.
o Meet a minimum of three criteria: free, frequent, fair.
o Right of individuals to organize parties and groups
o Universal adult suffrage (right to vote) franchise.
o Network of voluntarily organized institutions in society
that enjoy autonomy from the state and through which
individuals and groups represent themselves to the
state and to each other.
o School of democracy
o Bulwark of democracy
o Government is dependent on society resources.
Rule of law
o Idea of rule of law other than individuals
o Enshrined law. Political law establish by legal practice.
o Day to day administrations of the state.
o Unelected, unaccountable, governmental experts that
not only advise on decisions but also individuals that
make government work on a daily basis.
o Fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of
4 key characteristics. o Do what they are told by elected accountable
Autonomous economic sphere
o Some say you should collapse this into civil society
o State merely acting as an arbitrator upholding contracts
Fundamental Factors to engender democracy
o Democratic political culture
o Society must be inclined towards democracy
o Leaders who hold and exercise the power must favour
the maintenance and creation of democracy.
o Have tolerance and respect for compromise. Positive
sum, not zero sum.
o Civilian control – power between the civil sector and the
military sector, and in this civilians are dominated and
the military is sub-ordinate. The civilian sector must
have meaningful authority over the military. Civilian
leaders meaningfully determine the organized, function
and resources of the military, and they can do this
without fear of military relations.
Penetration Model – Supported by the rule of law.
Democratic control refers to when the military is
subordinate to democratically elected civilian
control. Model of civilian control applies to
totalitarian regimes (e.g. China, Nazi Germany,
Within these societies there is a tremendous fear
of Bonapartism. This word refers to Napoleon,
who used the military to o