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Lecture 1

POLI 381 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Hedley Bull, Kenneth Waltz, Robert Keohane

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 381
James( Jim) Francis Keeley

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Look at transnational model by NYE and Keohane
In the topic of globalization there are lot of things occurring in the world that
is not covered when states are looked upon as the primary actor
It lends itself to tap to variety of different schools of thoughts which all focus
on certain aspects of globalization and exclude others. What you end up
having then is having some bases covered but others not. Various people
have different ideas of globalization is, stress what they find important.
The pace and process of many of the problems that we see today may have
pre-cursers that allow them to be set up that way. The state in the 18th
century is different than what it is today.
Naturation of technology: It is more accessible to more people
We have territorial units: invaded by different actors, people are moving in
and out more. Countries are becoming more and more penetrated, what
happens outside a country effects what is happening inside the country.
Issue Density – States are demanded o more locally and globally. The
number of issues and the connections between them increase.
Globalization also means that more actors are involved, and they are coming
with policy which means things can become very complicated indeed.
This can impact power, and power does not mean it is limited to power.
Power can come from variety of sources such as :
Good ideas
Thus it can be concluded that there are layers to globalizations to be

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From 1914-19945 Globalization ran into serious negative impacts to the
world, and there we can observe a massive retreat, which leads to massive
disruption of the flow of trade for example. There is nothing that can say for
sure that globalization will continue, one can easily look at the 2008 finiancil
crisis that pulled Greece severely in debt.
Globalization Production Chain – Relied that on a timely basis transferring
goes smoothly.

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Theories require us to make commitments to what we want actors to
Theories are maps, they hope to simplify and point to important things
and leave out what they consider unimportant. Theories help us make sense
of the blizzard of information that bombards us, They can tell us what we
are observing. But it is important to mind that we approach the world with
set of initial dispositions. Different theories can have different
interpretations, and it is important to note that theories differ, they simplify
and leave things out. Theory is the story you tell. There are distinctions
between empirical and normative theories.
Empirical theory is descriptive and describe something that is going on
in the world. They can also be predictable.
Starts with events, notices trends and patters that are emerging from
those events and then explain those patters and also perhaps predicts what
happens. The theory comes in there.
Balance of Power Theory: WW1 WW2 were wars that were responding
to shifts in balance, they draw from events. We can also generate predictions
such as: an increasing power can lead to other states aligning themselves to
balance the power.
It is saying:
“If we find these variables, then there will be these outcomes”
Bob Keohane:
Made a theory on International Regimes, and claimed that they should
be found among these conditions.
He does it in favourable conditions, where you pick a predictions and
expect to see a result that is unsurprising. He
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