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Chapter 9 - Thought and Language.docx

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PSYC 200
Michael Boyes

Chapter 9: Thought and Language Inside the Black Box • Behaviorists • How to assess objectively what’s going on inside o Reaction time in different situations • Thousands of studies – importance of replication Thinking • What is it? o Manipulation of words & images o Manipulation of symbolic representations of words and images • Cognitive psychology o Studies how the mind:  Organizes perceptions – logically/illogically • Prototype theory – memory is associanistic in nature o Categories not defined by absolute boundaries o Prototype – perfect; doesn’t have to be real; compared to object at hand  Processes information  Interprets experience Concept Formation • Concept o A mental grouping of persons, places, ideas, events, or objects that share common properties  Application of prototypicality  Categories o Priming  When one concept is ‘activated’, others nearby in the network are primed  Primed – easier to remember; “warmed up”  Two conditions: • Look at bunnies  look at rabbit/duck illusion  see rabbit • Look at ducks  look at rabbit/duck illusion  see duck  Any time you process information in any way, certain meaning centres in the brain are activated with an effect on recall  E.g.: smashed vs. impacted • Prototype o Best representative of a concept o Varies depending on background experience o Ex: Sport  Football 1  Basketball  Golf  Chess  NASCAR o Vegetable? Bird? o Cheap magic acts make use of organization of memory into categories Problem Solving – Trial & Error • Identify problem o Car won’t start • Gather information o Outta gas? Dead battery? • Try a solution o Not outta gas, so I’ll dry off the wires • Evaluate results o Car starts - yeah! o Car doesn’t start - try another solution • Not systematic – need something systematic to fall back on o E.g. call AMA Problem Solving Strategies • Trial & error • Algorithm o A systematic, step-by-step problem-solving strategy, guaranteed to provide a solution o Ideal – guarantee o Drawn from mathematics  Computer programs – AI o Diagnostic computer programs in medicine  Zebra effect – new doctors think about the “coolest” disease for a certain symptom  Need input of experts o E.g. dating websites use algorithms to minimal effects o Typically requires training • Heuristic o A rule of thumb that allows one to make judgments that are quick but often in error o L K C C O  Most words in English have CK together  Only one vowel – should be in middle  CLOCK o Less than complete – usually/kind of works 2 o Personal – e.g. swearing at your computer o Can share information about heuristics o Requires training o Consciously do something with our experience that we wouldn’t otherwise do • Insight o Kohler, chimpanzees o Difficult to account for o Kohler – interested in learning in general  Aha! learning – can’t think of a solution, no algorithm/heuristic, grinding away; out of the blue solution comes to mind  Chimpanzees given problems – hang banana from top of cage  chimpanzees try to stack boxes  another chimpanzee watches them  chimpanzee w
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