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Introduction - Issues and Methods in Psychology.docx

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University of Calgary
PSYC 200
Michael Boyes

September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27 Introduction: Issues and Methods in Psychology • Preview: o Chapter 1 – history o Chapter 2 – methodology, research  Scientifically grounded • Psychology as a named discipline is relatively young o William James – 1900 first psychology textbook • Difficulties with objectivity when dealing with human beings o Participants adjust their responses based on what researchers want • Map of human head o Believed to be critically useful scientific tool o Purpose: to be used as a guide by a phrenologist o Phrenology – science of telling someone’s personality by feeling bumps on their head  1800s  Based on spins on solid scientific data in related areas at the time • Physicians interested in specificity of function within the brain – idea that certain things that humans do that are controlled by particular areas in the brain • Hypothesis based on data – strokes involved damage to the brain • Damage to the brain correlated with loss of certain abilities o Broca and Wernicke – physicians interested in particular kind of loss following stroke  Specialized with patients dealing with particular kinds of function losses o Broca – interested in people who had a stroke and lost the ability to speak  Physicians knew of external signs of a stroke; used post-mortem analysis of brain  Many still able to understand spoken communication  Hypothesis: area of the brain responsible involved in spoken communication  Broca’s Area – area people most commonly have damage in when they lose the ability to speak o Wernicke – interested in people who had a stroke and lost the ability to understand spoken communication but could still read and speak  Wernicke’s Area o Broca and Wernicke’s studies fit with a model around that time that suggested that the brain is like a muscle  Practice thinking and problem-solving  If there is specialization of function (like Broca and Wernicke suggested), then the areas that you work on more become more developed  area becomes bigger  Skull bulges out in that area over time – can feel bump o E.g. area over the ear: destructiveness, secretiveness o Phrenologists made a good living  Get education first, then get specialized training • Studied map, read sample heads  Practice their trade in a prescribed manner • Set up an office, make house calls  Entertainment house calls • Standard rate 1 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27 • Present themselves well, spoke well • Interact with guests, have dinner together • Guests take turns sitting on chair  phrenologist examined heads  remarkably accurate accounts of their personality • Phrenologists believed they were reading the bumps on the heads o But really, pay attention to way they acted during their visit o End of phrenology:  Participants in an experiment remained silent • Phrenologists came in one at a time and read the bumps • Phrenologist cannot speak to individual  Compare phrenologist’s reports – zero agreement • No opportunity to interact with individual  Underlying assumptions of phrenology are wrong  Talking to people, paying attention to how they present themselves, what/how they say allows you to know quite a bit about them • Rorschach’s Ink Blot test o Projective test  What people project into their account are indicative of what’s in their head  No inherent meaning – entirely random ink blot o Roots in a particular approach to psychology attributed to Sigmund Freud  Freud – believed 80% of what goes on in the head is unconscious  Depression, anxiety, sexual thoughts, etc. unconscious – trying to influence your behaviour in a devious way  Conscious mind constantly at work trying to keep these thoughts under wraps  To reveal unconscious: • Dream interpretation, ink blot test • Direct/indirect reflections of what’s going on in the unconscious level o Psychiatrists found this useful to reveal underlying issues (unconscious neuroses)  Worked well in an ongoing therapeutic relationship • Additional information  Standard scientific test: many experts see someone they don’t know and the individual tells them what they see • No agreement between experts • Not useful unless there’s an existing relationship • Barnum statement o “Disciplined and self-controlled outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure inside. At times you have serious doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations.” o Individuals fill out a personality inventory – rate above statement as 7-8/10 o Barnum and Bailey – ran a circus, freak museum  Had difficulty with people not leaving the freak museum – could not get new paying customers in  Barnum put up a sign with an arrow “This way to the egress” – people fooled by sign  Barnum - outspoken 2 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27 • Most famous quote: “There’s a sucker born every minute” – can manipulate people in all sorts of ways o Horoscopes similar to the above statement o Why is it that when we see things that are randomly produced why are we so anxious to conform/read it in a way that applies? • Basis of magic is not magic at all o “Think of a vegetable” – carrots  Demonstration of new theory of how we organize memory • Philosophers and logicians – categories defined by inclusion rules o Inclusion criteria for “birdness”  Beaks, feathers, gnarly feet, wings  Turkeys? Penguins? o Cognitive psychologists suggest that categories not defined by boundaries/rules for entry  Defined by prototypes  Prototype – single best exemplar; may not even exist in real world o Memory – something gets into the category if it is fairly close to the prototype  Reaction time to test prototypicality – distance from prototype operationalized by reaction time o Applications of prototypicality  Mind-reading  Carrots prototypical Why Study Humans? • Received knowledge – what we think we know about how things work o Hippocrates  Medical ethics – Hippocratic Oath for physicians  Personality theorist – 4 general kinds of people • Data based on observations • Sanguine – minstrel (drugs, rock and roll), outside of town; not reliable, put on a good show/party; blood • Choleric – quick-tempered, looking for quick solutions, difficult to live with in the long term; yellow bile • Melancholic – night creatures, stuck in the dark woods; depressed, shut down; black bile • Phlegmatic – wise and sage-like; boring and ponderous; slow and steady; phlegm  Balance of humours determines personality • Fluids found through post-mortem analysis  Data: • Herbs mixed for melancholic people – antidepressant properties o Saint John’s wort – acts in same way as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Prozac) • Desanguinate – jittery; barber opens up vein and take out 2 pints of blood  calms them down o Eysencks’ Two Factor Model of Personality – based  Husband and wife team; late ‘50s 3 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27  Based on solid empirical data – questionnaires, biological work (temperament patterns – observable in infants as young as 1 month old)  Shows that Hippocrates observations were remarkably accurate, but with questionable explanations  Introverted/Extraverted vs. Emotionally Unstable (Neurotic)/Emotionally Stable • Melancholic – unstable introvert • Phlegmatic – stable introvert • Choleric – unstable extravert • Sanguine – stable extravert • Clever Hans – classic example of application of scientific method; “brilliant” horse o Background:  Do math, understand spoken language • Tap math answer out with hooves  Could spell – tap: 1 for a, 2 for b, etc. o Oscar von Fungst – suggested standard two-condition experiment with rigid controls to test Hans  Two groups showing Hans questions: one group saw question on blackboard, other group did not see question  Clever Hans was reading human body language – tapped slowly and observed when to start and stop tapping o Point:  Need good methodology involving control  Engage in critical thinking – be open to possibility that current explanation is flawed/wrong/based on inappropriate data • Think about what else is going on – discovered horse’s phenomenal ability to read body language Field Guide to Psychologists • Clinical psychologists – have specific training in abnormal psychology o Set up private practices  Rate: $170/hour for individual counseling • Set by basis of recommendation – Alberta College of Psychologists • Sliding scale (charge less), Blue Cross plan  Specializations, expertise, treat different issues o Alberta College of Psychologists – regulatory body for private practice psychologists and other psychologists o PhDs in Psychology – graduate school, Master’s and PhDs in Clinical Psychology  1 year internship under supervision of a Registered Psychologist  Applied for registration status  200 MC registration exam  Oral exam in front of examination board – credentials and ethical standing o Have to get registered as a psychologist in the province to be able to call yourself a psychologist when doing private practice  Chartered  If not chartered – counsellor, consultant, etc. 4 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27 o Can be given the ability to prescribe limited drugs  Similar to how oral surgeons can prescribe pain medications – specifically trained to manage  Discussions in several provinces – prescribing/adjusting drug regimes o Psych ward: psychologist responsible for monitoring day to day symptoms  Antipsychotic medication – huge side effects, need constant monitoring  Psychiatrist in charge – oversees basic medications  Clinical psychologist – take day to day notes on changes that need to be made o 33% o Canadian Psychological Association – more geared towards clinical and counseling psychology (most psychologists in North America)  More specific organizations for specializations (research) o Clinical neuropsychology  Neuroscience connection to abnormal psychology • Counsellors – different levels of training o E.g. high school guidance counselor  Specific training in education post-graduate faculty  Possible to get a PhD and apply for charter status as a psychologist  Deal with broader range of developmental issues • Career path development • Adolescent crises – suicidal behaviour, etc. o 23% o School psychology – 12%  Most psychologists working as clinical psychologists and counsellors • Psychiatrists – have medical degree; doctors who have specialized in mental health o Hospital settings – psychiatric wards o Have the ability to prescribe medication o Referred to from GP • Applied psychologists – have an area of interest that is fairly tightly focused o E.g. military – career testing  Early development of IQ tests – WWII o Look at specific applications where there are human-machine interactions  Ergonomics – design: office chairs, early warning systems in cockpits (gradual move from indicator light to buzzer), etc. o Helping children cope with needle phobias (shots, IVs)  Distractors – cardboard cutout o Industrial – personnel selection/human resources – 2% o Health psychology – 4.7%  Issues such as how to spend last 10 years of life o Criminal psychology – 3.8% • Research psychologists o Psychology Departments in universities o Engaged in a program of ongoing research in a particular area (sub-discipline)  External funding o Articles published in peer-reviewed journals 5 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27  Move up through ranks depending on number of publications, merit increment o Training  Typically PhD level with training in particular area of interest  Teach in area of interest o Academic psychology – 12% How should we do psychology? • Large question: how we should go about doing psychology o General approach o How we think about and approach the study of human behaviour and functioning • Text: read history of psychology o Key figures (e.g. Sigmund Freud) o No need to memorize dates or all of the names o How people understood and thought about human functioning  What did they think was important?  How did they think it was appropriate to study human beings? – Methodology  Technologies • Cranial calibers – correlation between head size and intelligence  Subjectivity – research assistants sitting in chairs and describing how they feel o Different approach in studying human psychological function – openness • Structuralism – theorists who are interested in how things work, almost at a physical level o Interested in what is happening in the brain o Linked to neuroscience – different areas of brain being activated o Take psychological behaviour  break it down to components  locate parts of the brain for those components o Limbic system – emotional jumps; control  Structuralism looks at specific issues that drive a person into a particular situation • Functionalism – pay attention to purpose/role/function of that particular behaviour in a person’s life circumstances o Social perspective about a situation that causes a person to keep repeating a certain behaviour • Behaviorist o Influence: wake up call  1940s – subjective research techniques  Study things that can be directly observed and measured o Treat the mind as a black box (can’t see inside)  Study what goes in, and what goes out (objective)  Only study stimuli and response o Scientific, simple approach to studying human behaviour • 1950s-1960s: cognitive approach (cognitive revolution) o Be scientific and objective, but also look inside the black box o Develop fairly objective ways of measuring what’s going on inside the head  Indirect techniques – reaction time o Strong revolution that is still ongoing o Moving towards cognitive neuroscience 6 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27  Connections between what we believe is going on in people’s minds and what’s actually going on inside their brain  What is happening in neural networks when a person engages in a particular behaviour • Psychology as a science – systematic study of behaviour and experience o Stated self-definition o Need to be objectively based  Social psychology – difficulties with objectivity • Human participants in research – relationship between researcher and participant • Demand characteristics – researchers signaling for what they want and participants giving in  Brain scans more objective o Gather data, engage in critical thinking (carefully) o Ethical component  Kind of therapy used needs to have empirical/research backing • Specific training in a specific approach that you’re staying current with • Cognitive behaviour therapy – identify a patient’s underlying assumptions about the nature of their place in society; work with them to challenge those assumptions o Powerful – works as well as drugs in treating depression (relapse when using drugs) o Evolving – need to stay current (continuing education)  Must refer to data when giving lectures/talks, cannot give one’s own opinion  Ethically, must stay focused in a particular area • Need specific training if taking on a new technique • Arrange for supervision – feedback about how it’s going  Needed in all areas – e.g. university setting: • Strict guidelines • Naturalistic observation – Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees • Describe • Explain – where does it come from • Predict – when things go right or wrong o Need enough data  E.g. do children who come from abusive backgrounds become abusive parents? • Only data for abusive situations collected, need data from children who came from these backgrounds but did not become abusive • Likelihood doubles Psychology as a Science • Psychology – systematic study of behaviour and experience • Data and critical thinking • Describe, Explain, Predict, control Three Philosophical Issues • Free will vs. determinism o Can you actually decide to be different? o Changing how you manage yourself and relationships 7 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27  Difficult o Determinism – what forces are acting that we’re not aware of  Notion that all behaviour is determined by preceding events o Free will – humans possess the ability to make decisions that are not dictated by either nature (heredity) or nurture (environment)  Behaviorists took the view that we have no free will • Watson said that if you give me complete control of an infant early enough in life, I can shape and mold them into any kind of adult you want • Each and every one of you is a product of your reinforcement history  Issues with motivation, life-changing decisions  Social situations and circumstances can manipulate our behaviour • Mind-brain problem o Centers around questions investigating how closely related are the conscious mind and the brain itself  Will there be a role for our subjective experience when the biology is all figured out?  Examples? • Addictions • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy o Drugs for mental illnesses (e.g. depression, schizophrenia) o Is there more to what happens in our minds than the neurochemical processes of the brain?  Complexity of the brain o Concerns:  Addictions – need two-pronged approach • Physiological change within the individual (e.g. withdrawal symptoms) • Psychological – crutch, dependency  Medication + cognitive behavioral therapy effective treatment for depression o Neuroscience  Hybrid area – cognitive neuroscience  Prototype theory of memory • Nature vs. nurture o Raised vs. genetic conditions o Are differences in behaviour primarily due to differences in heredity or environment?  Which is more important?  How do they interact? o Developmental psychology  Identify “dangerous” individuals early  Sociopath – lack capacity to experience shame/guilt (anxiety – base emotion)  By age 3, children aware that parental love is contingent of their behaviour  Managing a child’s behaviour at a distance • Requires internal emotive hooks (which sociopaths lack) o 50/50  Trying to separate nature and nurture is foolish – need to acknowledge interactions Psychological Perspectives 8 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27 • Biological (Physiological) Perspective o All actions, feelings, and thoughts are associated with bodily events – neuroscience/neurophysiology  Genetic makeup – markers for certain categories of disease/disorder • Mental illness – e.g. clinical depression • Concordance rate – identical twins; level of agreement in terms of outcomes that occur to them o High concordance rate – if one twin diagnosed for depression, other twin has 65% rate (base rate 10-20%)  Brain damage • Early work of Broca and Wernicke with stroke patients – foundation for understanding of neurophysiology • Wernicke’s area – loss of ability to understand spoken communication • Broca’s area – loss of ability to speak • Medical brain death – lack of neural activity in higher centers of the brain and medulla  Variations in diet • Food additives, food dyes o Wilder Penfield – Canadian  Neurosurgeon – remove tumours, scar tissue, etc. from brain  Interested in parts of the brain engaged in activities  Case study data • Patients under local anesthetic only – awake and alert o General anesthetic – brain not too active o Anesthetic to skull to mobilize head o No pain receptors in brain • Probe with small voltage – stimulate exposed areas of brain o Person awake and alert – Penfield can observe reactions • Responses: o Quite a number of patients could report hearing music that wasn’t there o Remembering things they haven’t thought of in years • Trace/engram theory of memory: electrical circuit in brain – particular loop for particular memory o Memories specifically located o Criticism: there is no specific memory loss in stroke damage, usually effects on overall memory processing o Karl Lashley  Test this experimentally  Rats given specific memories • Trained them to run through a particular maze – motivated by food deprivation • 4/5 times – no false turns, got the maze down cold  Went into each rat’s brain and systematically removed a different area of the brain • Gave them recovery time  back in maze  no indication that they had forgotten the maze  Took out slightly bigger piece 9 September 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27 • Eventually found that the only thing stopping rats was if removal of brain took out motor control  Conclusion: memories not specifically stored in bra
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