Second temple judaism was divided into 3 major sects: sadducees, pharisees, essenes. The religious elite, controlling the jerusalem temple and its economy. They rejected the oral torah and some of the newer ideas in judaism. Pharisees: prushim" in hebrew: separatists. Means permanent, should be done by specific people. Everything is up to god: luni-solar calendar. Based on moon (is also used by muslim) A non-priestly grp, whose concern about religious purity and the study of torah and oral traditions gave them popular influence in the society. Darkness will soon clash in an apocalyptic war. Often identified with an apocalyptic sect, discontent with life under the maccabees, who formed an isolated ascetic, scribal, and priestly community near the dead sea at qumran. The dead sea scrolls were part of their library. *maccabees: the nickname of the hasmoneans, a priestly family who led the revolt against the seleucid greeks, and liberated.