Inuit means ‘people’
Indigenous people being viewed as active players in Canada.
AJ Ray, Frank Tough and Rolf Knight talk about the contributions of indigenous people up till the WWII.
Frank Tough and AJ Ray talk about how these people were very adept and use market influence to their
METIS: European and indigenous people mix.
There was a breakdown here between those who were French and those who were British. There was a
war going on between French and British and it was very beneficial for them to have the Indian people to be
on their side, because they knew the terrain so well.
British metis people were called half breds.
Indian is a legal status and some people insist on being called Indian.
The Indians have a relationship with the federal crown. Indians some have entered into a treaty and some
There are 600+ First nations groups.
Land was very important and it used to be taken away from Indian reserves very often.
Treaties were entered into by the crown.
Pre confederation treaties in Atlantic Canada. These treaties were also called the peace and friendship
treaties. The British and the French were in war because of furs, trade and land. If you were on the British
side, they would want you to be allies with them and they would want to trade only exclusive to them. Calgary is in the treaty 7 region. The treaties go up to 11.
Douglas treaties made in 1850’s.
Delgamuukw decision : this is from the interior BC area. Satsan Herb George when interviewed by
CBC and asked aout housing and jobs etc and that people were worried, and he said that they are scared
that we would do what they did to us and now, balance of power is changing slowly.
Aboriginal and treaty rights are addressed and affirmed.
We have people in Canada who are registered status Indian who can be treaty or non treaty. There were no
treaties in Quebec, until the James Bay and Northern Quebec treaty in 1975 which was the first modern day
Bill C31 April 17, 1985
This bill separated band membership and status. If you are a registered Indian, because of
enfranchisement (when you lost your Indian status). The ways you can lose your Indian status
if you are a female and you marry a non Indian (married out), you can lose your status.
But if you marry an Indian man, you would gain status even if you get divorced.
The architect of enfranchisement was superintendent of Indian affairs Duncan Canpbell Scott, in which the
entire idea was to bring down the Indian numbers and roles. Because ht govt had co inherited the Indians
from the British crow, they wanted to bring down the cost of the relationship that they had with the Indians.
You could also lose your Indian status by joining the military.
You could also give up the status voluntarily if you were a man, and also could give up the woman’s status
and his children’s.
If you had a university degree.
If you joined a clergy
Indian agent could enfranchise you as well if he did not like something that you did.
If you were non Indian you had to leave the reserve and could only visit for 2 weeks in a year.
With bill c31, you were able to apply to central registry, they would give you status and then you had to go
to your band and ask them if they would take you back.
The sawridge case we as first nations get to decide who is part of the band. they decided they did not
want to add people to join their band, they would make people write a 1000 word essay about how they
could contribute to this band and why they should add them back to the band. The wife of the chief was a woman who gained status by marriage.
DEFINITION OF ABORIGINAL PEOPLE:
Descendant of the original people of Canada.
3 types of aboriginal people: covered by constitution act of 1982
Non status Indian people not included but also one of them
Statistics Canada aboriginal data:
2 types of data:
Aboriginal ancestry those with aboriginal heritage somewhere in their background but don’t necessarily
identify with them. Because of the low social standing, for a very long time, people used to hide their
Aboriginal identity those who identify themselves as aboriginal on the census.
Jan 17 :th
At one point, the population was down to 110,000 people. So this was when the Spanish flu epidemic
started, this was when soldiers came back from Europe and how they brought the flu back, and there was a
pandemic. The indigenous community was particularly hard hit, (1901) ducan Campbell scott was making
sure that there were no Indians left, and the burden of the Indians would be lifted off the shoulders of the
The dependency ratios between the indigenous and non indigenous residents, if there is a senior
population, there is going to be an increase in health costs.
in a 5 year period between 20012006 the senior population increased by 40%.
Indigenous people of Canada have a shorter lifespan than Canadian society. People diagnosed with cancer, in indigenous people is that they are diagnosed in later stages and chances
of surviving is less.
Where aboriginal people live:
The percentage of aboriginal people in Nunavut is 85%
Ontario has the largest number of indigenous people, the indigenous people make up of 1% of the total
Probability of Saskatchewan and Manitoba by 2025, 1 in 4 children would be indigenous.
Generally indigenous people have large family
Link between education and lifetime earnings:
Eric Howe (sask, 2002)
Males more able to obtain jobs with decent wage than females
Education has a bigger pay off for females than males
Diff between no high school diploma and university degree:
Females 13 times
Males 3 times
Sales and service more common in women
Transportation business more common in men.
Women are 3:1 more likely to have degrees
Over represented in trades and transportation. The trades are good paying occupations. Indigenous women sales and service and social science, and business and financing as well
Aboriginals fastest growing segments of Canadian society
Aboriginal population increased more than 300% in 30 years
Aboriginal population increased 20% from 20062011
Young population with median age > than 12 years younger than mainstream society.
Representation increased in all provinces and territories except Nunavut and NWT
Majority of aboriginal people live in west and north
Educational attainment levels increasing but still lower than mainstream
Aboriginal females more educated than aboriginal males
More diverse occupations than in past
Grade 8 used to be the standard on education in the reserves.
50 years ago, there were only 200 people that went to university, and now there is 28,000 people in univ.
Now education spending in the indigenous community has a cap.
Believe strongly in the concept of meritocracy: it said that you have merit as an employee, and that you
have educational and workplace experience, if you have spent time as a good employee, you will reap the
benefits of that. If they are working for an employee, they should be treated decently. People expect, that
once you are done studying, you should be able to get a decent job.
Higher unemployment rates : when there are jobs we work, however many of the places where they
live unless there is resource development nearby there is not prospect of employment.
Metis population has higher employment rate than mainstream society
Earn less than non aboriginal people
Labor participation rate slightly lower than mainstream society
Aboriginal male earnings on par with non aboriginal females. Employment equity act : 4 designated groups who were deemed to be disadvantaged: women, visible
minorities, disabled, aboriginals. This act wanted to increase the numbers of these people, but also evenly
distributed within the workplace occupational ladder.
Women more likely to be in secretarial or admin positions.
Lowe and Krahn: income, authority and autonomy (do you get to select what you do in a day, or do you do
the same jobs everyday) in workplace. If you look at the occupational ladder, the job gets better and better.
Aboriginal people people were over qualified for the jobs that they did. Underemployed, and less money
than non indigenous people.
Employment equity act: applies to large organizations, more than 100 employees, those companies
that are federally regulated banking, milling, transportations, fishing.
Implications of this act:
Education and training is essential
Infrastructure needed for burgeoning population young and elderly
Larger population of labor force
More educated workforce demand better jobs
If you do not know any aboriginals now, you will in the future
Need to engage and employ aboriginals to sustain Canada’s social safety net.
Medical medicine chest clause
Continue to live as Indians life style hunting, fishing, gathering, trapping.
Promised land 160 acres for a family of 5
Ammunition for hunting. In the Indian act, there was a restriction on ammunition, they could not buy
ammunition. Although it was promised, and said they could continue to live as Indians, but not allowed, as
there was fears that they would revolt.
Farm implements govt wanted more farmers
X number of cows per year If these have not been fulfilled, there are two types of claims
Specific claim if there was something specific that you were promised but not given
Jan 20 th
Truth and reconciliation Commission (TRC) – people were able to voice their experience about
what happened to them in the residential school.
Two cultures: choice and effects of a resource development in Canada’s first
Treaty eight, signed in 1899
Kenoosayoo signed this treaty, treaty 8 signatory at willow point near Grouard, Alberta.
Treaty medal given to chiefs at treaty signing.
Clifford sifton was minister of interior, responsible for efforts to bring immigrants to Canada. Went to eastern
Europe and brought eastern European farmers to Canada as the govt was very worried about land and
farming in the Prairies.
Treaty 8 region:
11,000 years regional archeological history
signed 1899 between FN’s and Crown
resource rich area
324,000 sq miles
fort Chipewyan: oldest European settlement in Alberta est. 1788. Chipewyan means pointed skins pointy
hats to remove the snow from head.
The cost of the treaty was signed for $250,000
Fredoline Marcel last hereditary chief related to voyageur
Alexandre laviolette Elected chief only started in 1980’s
Dene T’ha ordinary people
Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation, Alberta
Boat is a status symbol
42 resource companies on Athabasca Chipewyan FN traditional territory
duty to consult: if there is change on FN land, FN have to be consulted first.
Largest mining project on the planet
Heavy oil: oil, sand, and clay
$26 per barrel to produce now $116 per barrel
projected 1M barrels per day by 2020 actually reached in 2004 16 years earlier
production proposed to increase to 5M barrels per day
about half the oil shipped to the US this is under the NAFTA
proportionality clause in NAFTA whatever the high mark is in production, more oil we send to the US, it
becomes the new target. The amount of oil sent to US can never go down, only go up or stay same.
Eastern Canada imports oil from the middle east.
Tar sands mining near fort Mac
Syncrude energey uses clark hot water process. 1. Crush oil soaked bitumen 2. Mix with heated water 3.
Separate the bitumen from water
Fort McMurray now:
Pop 78,000 Vacancy rate1%
Pop increase in 2 year period was 11.6%
2 bedroom apartment rent2,000
choice and consequence:
natural resource usage
U of A water system specialist Dr David Schindler, “we don’t know the consequences”
Health, environment and food insecurity for first nations residents
Environment stays relatively unchanged
Resources not going anywhere
Projects progress anyway
Derive few or no benefits from development
Moratorium to study impacts thus far
Security over environment, water, and food supply Navigable water act:
Idle no more movement:
Jan 24 :
Haida/ Taku river 2004 the soci majors group
background genesis of the case
what caused the case to be brought forward harmeet
argumentation ▯ nikki
rationale from the lower case
supreme court will only deal with it when there is no president
implications of the case on the indigenous community
what are the implications for main stream society
provide supplementary materials hand outs cupcakes
maps, photos, diagrams
hand in PowerPoint, speaking notes
25% of mark is presentation total is 40% 15 % is colleague assessment
exam questions on these cases
aboriginal rights are what some aboriginal people have due to ancestors we are more specifically
talking about first nations.
This si the right to hunt, trap and fish on ancestral land and they may burry between first nations depending
on customs practices and traditions. They are known to live throughout the Canadian land mass, those
living on plains
Self determination and self sufficiency, this is based on sovereignty and the nation status we had prior to
To harvest and to trade are also part of the rights
Legal term that recognizes the aboriginal interest in the land, based on long standing use and occupancy of
the land dating back hundreds and thousands of years.
The royal proclamation 1763 confirms Indian ownership of the lands.
Also declares that treaties between the Indians and the crown extinguished in aboriginal title.
Document that sets out Guidelines for European settlement of aboriginal territory in what is now north
America, not just Canada.
The royal proclamation was issued by king George III in 1763 to officially claim north America as British
territory after Britain won the seven year war.
It guarantees that Indian hunting grounds would be preserved until treaties are signed.
Indians would be protected from fraud by private individuals.
Metis scrip: People could decide whether they could have relationship with the crown or they could decide to take land
at that moment and sever the relationship that they would have with the federal government and take land
scrip. With land scrip, You were given a 150 acres to 240 acres. Land is a precious commodity.
The practices of land titles and the frauds carried out with land titles. Linked with metis scrip
The British monarch in this state queen Victoria also called great white mother hold exclusive rights to
enter into negotiation and treaty with the Indian people. Indians cannot deal individually, it has to be the
crown. The negotiation between Indians and crown must be made in public. Treaties are the result of the
British monarch negotiating and purchasing the Indian lands. Farming implements, twine, medical care and.
Suigeneries meaning distinctive within themselves and different than any
many buffalo were being killed
government will play salaries of the teacher.
March 28 presentation
CHECK EMAIL FOR THIS NOTES JANURARY 27 TH
CHECK EMAIL FOR JANUARY 29 NOTES
Feb 3 :
Criminlization of indigenous lifestyle
With the crown, when the treaties were signed, Indians could live by their lifestyle.
J Jonathan rudin says aboriginals over involvement if undegenous people in the Canadian cjs.
Three problems …..cultural clash, socio economic disparities and colonialism
There is a problem with both over policing and under policing.
He says that over policing refers to the practice of police targeting certain ethnic groups who live in
particular neighborhoods. The police go to people where indigenous people go tobars, hotels and sit and
wait for someone to do something wrong.
The government of Canada has used the police to enforce any disputes that they may have with indigenous
people. People who may be attempting to exercise their rights and also to invalidate any claims that the
indigenous people may have.
Under policing when an assault is committed against indigenous people that they deserve it. They don’t
deserve protection of the law although under charter of rights everyone is given the same rights
Kitty nowdluk beaten, choked and raped by non indigenous man so traumatized that they moved away
from the community. She ignored court orders to show up took her out of her house in handcuffs8 day
ordeal 5 different prisons. She testified against him he gets charged and bring her back near her home
drop her off on the side of the road in the middle of the night. She brought a claim against the rcmp claims
commission and treated as a criminal, and got an apology.
Cradle to grave legislation with 3 primary purposes—
Civilize the Indian
Administer Indian people, their lands and resources
Define is and is not an Indian
Patriarchal bias traditional Indian society matriarchal society
Administered by aboriginal affairs and northern development
Amended periodically ex: bill c31
When there are people like the “other”, it is okay to kill them and dehumanize them.
The Indian problem:
Duncan Campbell scott
“I want to get rid of the Indian problem…our object is to continue there is not a single Indian in Canada that
has not been absorbed…” lifestyle limitation:
restriction to hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering
peasant farming policy
limited mobilitypass system
could not congregate in large groupslarger than four
banned religious activities
could not vote until 1960
could not hire a lawyer
could not get a uni degree and remain an Indian
could not wear regalia
could not participate in parades
could not attend dances
how did all this happen▯reil resistance happened at batoche in sask. The first rebellion happened in
Manitoba, the metis packed up and came to sask and this has always been about land. This is a
continuation today, but not add resources to land.
Reil rebellion in 1869 the leader went to US and married and had children and some people who were with
him when there started to be trouble in sask, they went down to Montana and convinced louis real to come
and resist in Canada government policies and immigration. Reail was hanged and called a traitor. Along
with reil, 8 others hanged largest hanging in Canada who fought alongside reil. The governemtn agreed to
give rations to Indians as they were not allowed to leave reserves and hunt and Indian agents had rations
that they were not giving out so people were starving during this time.
Lecture 9 2014/02/07
• Λεγαλ Ριγητ – τηε βενεφιτ οφ τηε λαω ασ ωελλ ασ τηε προτεχτιον οφ τηε λαω
• Ηονορ οφ τηε Χροων – μεανσ τηατ ψου ασ αν ινδιϖιδυαλ τηατ ψου χαν
εξπεχτ α χερταιν λεϖελ οφ στανδαρδ
o What was the historical context for this dispute?
o What was the social context for this dispute? o How do the non indigenous fishermen defend their position?
o How do the indigenous fisherman defend their position?
o What actions surprised you as a viewer?
o What are the ironies in this video?
o How could this situation have been better handled by the a) MigMaq, b) non indigenous
fishermen, c) the police, d) the government?
o What have we learned?
o A truck house is a location where indigenous people can go to trade. It was meant for the Indians
to provide provisions to either the French or the English.
o Licenses went up in price, so it was hard for these people to afford fishing.
o Indigenous people had 1% of traps than non indigenous people had
o If a particular conservation was and it was opened indigenous people are allowed in first.
February 10 : th
Distress call from the chief and when the abo people went to respond, they got tear gassed.
Racism in BC
Charged with false charges
Peace officer for burnt church▯rcmp is very racist
Mathew coon come assembly of first nations (AFN)
Boat ran over them while they were fishing
Have to fight this hard for something that is theirs
Great whale project Community had still not signed
Migamma people have to raise money to go to court and face the charges that were laid on them faced
with obstruction and criminal code
Supreme court – inherent right to fish
The court is process of criminalization
Is the crown at war with us
It’s a crisis problems with having no legal council people being charged and not knowing why they were
being charged, they were going fishing to exercise fishing rights
State funded council it is the social justice rights and arguments
Go to court and the government does not respect the decision.
Canadian army helped to put up tents for abo youth
Federal government should provide funding for council.
Traditional/hereditary leaderships VS Indian Act Leadership
500 years of oppression incapable of making change after this long
none of them are armed
measured approachmutual respect for both communities
rather than recognizing rights, only 900 traps allowed and only limited area
boundaries means reservations it gets colder and the lobsters move away
when they call 911, they hang up
burt church rangers went in boats non native fisherman
5600 only let for Indians but there are 240,000 out there 01/13/2014
February 24 :
Significantly over represented in cjs number of reasons:
Some are just bad those people we hope they learn
Aboriginal people are proportionally sent to jail at a higher rate than any other segment
Occupy 18% of spots
Very nig differece regionally north very high aboriginal people responsibly of crime Nunavut, nwt
Manitoba, sask, ab prairie sweep says that incarceration rate is very high in the prairies for aboriginal
As we go from east to west there is increase in crime rate are the number of incident per 100,000
Provinvial system are those where people are sentenced for less than two years, so crimes that are less
serious▯ 2 years and plus is the federal system
ACCORDING TO JOHN Hilton most of the aboriginal people are in the provincial system 2/3 of abo
people are there because they are not able to pay the fine.
John Hilton said that Minor crimes committed under the influence of alcohol
There is a need for high quality and systematic data on this topic
There have been several reports, commissions and inquiries about why there is such a clash between abo
and the cjs, what the govt wants to do is to improve the systems response about abo people being accused
Donald marshall junior member of first nations spent 11 years in prison for a murder he did not commit.
The justice system failed him at every turn> at the base of this was racism, and discrimination.
Dark figure of crime: we know that the best criminals are those that never get caught. So we never really
know how much crime there really is, becase many people may not get caught but also many times crimes
are committed and people may not report them and abo community approximately 6 out of 10 crimes are
not reported to the police. Not reported because:
Police do not do a good job according to people although we are supposed to have full protection and
benefit of law complaints were not being investigated properly
Many times people think that police do not respond quickly enough. 01/13/2014
Many feel that they don’t have a good relationship between police and the indi people.
Justice is when whatever happens to you, you have benefit and people heard and listened to you and there
is a leveling
If there is any instruction that looks biased that is grounds for an appeal.
Steps of cjs
Whether person calls the police
Police calls for investigation
Do they write it up formally or informally
Once it gets to court there is a number of processes decide whether itll go forward or not preliminary
Vandalism in Sidney, nova scotia▯ police chief’s family’s grave stones were vandalized and the police chief
thought that donals marshall junior did it who is a usual suspect someone that has been in trouble with the
law. At every step of the way, the cjs failed Donald marshall.
The manitoba justice inquiry said something bad “as an aboriginal male youth, has a better chance of
going to prison than completing high school”
Amnesty international did a report about violence against indi people in Canada federal govt should
provide adequate funding for research on violence against abo women. research done by connie deiter
showed that although abo women make up 4% of population they make up 14% of the murder victims in
Number of victims by willie picton were abo women.
Willie picton people that worked on the streets in Vancouver were contacting the police and saying that
people were going missing, people were. Police came up with a $100,000 reward for whoever was breaking
into the garages of rich people and when, people got angry that they were not taking up the case of the
missing women, turned out that all those women were killed.
Government was saying take high quality information on ethnicity of victims as well as the perpetrators of
violent crimes many police officers refused to do this kind of data collections as they thought that they
might have issues>
Dealing specifically with aboriginals
Status Indian might not necessarily mean that they look Indian not identified miss identification
This can cause problems in society that perhaps abo people are responsible for all crimes
We still need this data as we need info to help deal with policies
Information will help the anaylis of abo representation of various sectors police, courts and alternative
justice programs and corrections. 01/13/2014
We could look at social conditions demographics, income, health etc and the other impacts of social
Social determinants of health 13 indicators
Government also wants to take in diversity issues specific attention to regional differences lots of diversity
within aboriginal community
Common assault is most common crime in abo people
Non abo people property crimes most common
Facilitate policy and program development
February 26 :
Midterm 1 discussion:
Indians were given the vote in 1960
Losing Indian status is enfranchisement
Indigenous culture states that the most important part of someone is everything mental, spiritual, physical,
happy and stuff
A woman traditionally walks behind her spouse.
Catalyst for signing treaty8 was everything
Sentencing rationale is punishment
Rupert ross stresses that is social control ▯ gossip very strong form of informal and traditional social
1927—federal govt made it illegal to collect funds for representation▯true
bill c31 ammendments
common form of punishment was banishment
kitty nawdluk Reynolds raped and beaten by non indigenous men 01/13/2014
normative culture: destroying culture culture has 4 parts material, cognitive and language rules and
behavior within a specific group. All agree about this is how we want to act.
Indian problem: Indians were thought to be a dying breed and Duncan Campbell scott wanted to rid them
from Canada and make them get into canadian culture.
Fertile belt: area that is particularly good for agriculture Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
Everybody is supposed to be wqual under the law the legal rights were to be upheld. Traps and properties
were violated and destroyed