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AGR 2320
Kim Bolton

ENVS 2060*SOIL SCIENCE Wednesday January 9,2013 Soil Forming Factors I. Time -progressive weathering -generally more and thicker horizons over time BUT -you can reach an endpoint of weathering where soil is one large horizon (can be found in the tropics) -the problem with ‘well weathered’ soils is that it has little productivity -therefore, when you cut down a tropical forest the result is very productive soil for a very short period of time. Once the organic litter layer is used up, the soil has nothing to offer II. Topography -drainage and soil erosion influence soil development -iron oxidizing causes red→grey colour change III. Organisms -source of photosynthetic carbon contributes to weathering, development of soil structure -influenced by climate Eg., grassland vs. forest Coniferous vs. deciduous IV. Climate -key terms temperature and moisture -affects vegetation and biological activity -determines rates of weathering →amt of precipitation determined by climate; water is the primary tool of weathering V. Parent Material -nature of bedrock -calcareous (carbonates) vs. acidic -glaciers and meltwater moving, sorting, redepositing TYPES OF PARENT MATERIAL Residual Bedrock weathered in place Fluvial Materials deposited in moving water Glacial Materials deposited by glacial activity Eolian Deposited by rain Colluvial Materials deposited by gravity on slopes Marine Materials deposited on ocean floor then exposed Lacustrine Materials deposited in lakes and then exposed (glacio-lacustrine) A little more on Glacial deposits, -particularly important in Canada due to relevant gl
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