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AGR 2320 (34)
Lecture

nutrient cycle 6-.pdf

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Department
Agriculture
Course
AGR 2320
Professor
John Lauzon
Semester
Fall

Description
Essential Plant Nutrients •M rntitr Major Nutrient Cycles and •Mettd Nutrient Manag gement -C ,,,H, O -N,P,K, -Ca,Mg,S ( These are often called secondary nutrients) • Micronutrients (needed in small quantities) -Fe,Mn,Mo,B,Cu,Zn,Cl -Co,Ni -Se Corn Nutrient Uptake and Removal Essential Plant Nutrients -1 -1 9500 kg ha (150 bu acre ) • Macro- vs micronutrients Nutrient Uptake Removal Hay removal •ttac (kg ha ) - C, H, O Nitrogen (N) 220 160 550 - N,PK, K, - Ca, Mg, S ( These are often called secondary nutrients) Phosphorus 2P5O ) 110 65 125 Potassium 2K) 220 45 525 •ttrci Calcium (Ca) 45 1 - Fe, Mn, Mo, B, Cu, Zn, Cl, Magnesium (Mg) 28 15 - Co, Ni Sulfur (S) 16 12 Zinc (Zn) 0.16 0.05 -Se Role of N, P and K Role of N, P and K • K • N: –Stif,rb,lrophylcsh -Chlorophyllformation - Photosynthesis –Trittrageocfarbohydraets. –Stmaigignco -Syynthesss offproteinss – Unlike other essential elements K is not a component of biochemical compounds (just in solution) • P: - Energy transfer (ATP) - DNA, RNA 1 Nutrient Budget of an Ecosystem General Nutrient Cycle Atmospheric InputsLosses Fertilizer input Plant and animal Grazing & additions Crop Removal Erosion And runoff Storage Plant Leaching uptake Groundwater Groundwater outflow Nitrogen Cycling N Gas 2 NO 3 78 % of atmosphere Volatilization Biological Erosion FertilizeFixation Deposition Harvest Nitrog gen SooiiOrganiicmaatttteerr Mineralization Plant NH + uptake 4 Immobilization N O, N 2 2 Nitrification NO - 3 Denitrification Leaching Clay Inputs N2Gas Haber Process NO 78 % of atmosphere 3 Air N Gas H Gas Natural Gas Biological Fertilizer Deposition High Pressure Fixation + High Temp SoiiOrganiicmaatttteerr ++ Catalyst + NH 4 High Pressure High temp Ammonia CO 2 O2 - NO 3 NH -CO-NH NH NO HNO 2 2 4 3 3 Urea Ammonium Nitrate Nitric acid NitrogenFertilizer ProductionProcess 2 N Fertilizers in Ontario Ontario N Fertilizer Sales Fertilizer Name Formula N content N used % (Mg) Fertilizer Analysis Used N used Fert. cost 2008 costValue 6 Urea CO(NH 2 2 46 79609 Tonnes ($/tonne) ($ / kg N($ x10 Anhydrous NH3 82 21656 Urea 46-0-0 173064 79609 726 1.57 126 ammonia NH 4O 3 34-0-0 21874 7437 566 1.66 12 Anhydrous 82-0-0 26410 21656 1097 1.32 29 UAN (1/2 urea, 28 36214 N solution 28-0-0 129336 36214 465 1.66 60 1/2NH4NO3 CaNH 4O 3 27-0-0 20604 5563 Ammonium NH4NO 3 34 7437 CaNO 3 15.5-0-0 2743 411 nitrate NH 4O 4 21-0-0 9864 2071 NH 4H2PO4 11-52-0 103981 11438 1180 Sulphur coated CO(NH 2 2 35 urea Sulphur coat (NH 4 2PO 4 18-46-0 21249 3825 908 KNO 3 14-0-41 948 133 Cost of N, P O ,2an5 K O / kg2 Biological N Fixation 2 3.5 yl launnadexi fNl56-05 rof•Accu Oct. 2008 3 MAP ).puibozihr( noi tcefni co f iceps •tsH 2.5 Urea (mcni yzneenoevah l•lA NITROGENASE) ($/kg) Potashh 22 22 • Baacterra need soomee oxyggen BUUT ffxatonn ofN c can onlyy 1.5 take place in low oxygen environment 1 niom•hgeL Nutrient cost 0 199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200522012007200820092010 McEwan (1993 – 2012) Biological N Fixation Rhizobium Nitrogen Fixation System or organism N Fixed (kg/ha) H 2 2 N2 130 - 600 Alfalfa Sooybeean 60 --1000 NH 3 Clover 100 - 160 CHO n Lichens 40 - 80 25 CO 2 Blue-green algae azotobacter 0.3 Leghemoglobin Evans and Barber 1977 3 Transformations Rhizobium and N Uptake N2Gas NO 78 % of atmosphere 3 BiologicaDeposition FertiliFixation SoiOrganiimaatttteerr Mineralization NH + 4 Immobilization Nitrification NO3- The amount of fertilizer-N required in a given year is dependent on the inputs of inorganic-N from other Mineralization sources, the demands of the crop and the losses by different mechanisms • Decomposition of OM by heterotrophic organisms • The most significant input of inorganic-N is to yield NH 4, CO 2 H 2, and other plant nutrients derived from the mineralization of different
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