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Lecture

AquacultureOct2013COSH.pdf

43 Pages
114 Views

Department
Agriculture
Course Code
AGR 2350
Professor
Vern Osborne

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Description
Introduction to Global Aquaculture Owen Skipper-Horton, PhD Candidate Oct. 2, 2013 Outline What is aquaculture? Industry summary and species groups Production systems and country groups Common challenges for the global fish farmer  Feed Costs  Feed Formulation and Feeding Strategies  Fish Health Canadian Aquaculture  Canadian Demands and Perceptions  Political Landscape Aquaculture’s  Future Aquaculture  is… “The  farming  of  any  animal,  plants,  or  insects   in  any  aquatic  environment” AQUACUL TURE = AGRICULTURE New in Feel, Old in Reality  3500 BC: first records of Chinese polyculture  475 BC: first textbook on fish farming  Elite Romans farmed mullets and trouts on plantations  Egyptian flooding and fish farming of lands for reclamation of saline soils  Hawaii:  Taro fish ponds in Hawaii, using irrigation runoff and estuary tributaries  Seawater ponds with elaborate canals and fern gate systems for harvesting An Opportunistic Industry AQUAMUL TICULTURAL >340 Species in 2009! Focus Now on ~ 20 Species Global Production by Species Group Global Production by Species Group Tilapia Catfish Common carp Indian major carp FINFISH Cod Salmon Rainbow trout Arctic charr Green mussel Giant clam BIVAL VES Clam Pearl Oyster farm Scallop Golden pearl oyster Ulva lactuca Nori nori ALGAE Kelp Enteromorpha Intensive vs Extensive Aquaculture Extensive : No inputs. Rely solely on natural food Semi-intensive: Natural Food production stimulated and/or complemented by inputs, such as, inorganic and organic fertilizers and supplemental feeds Intensive: No (or only very minor) contribution of natural Credit: Dominique Bureau food Global Production by Country Grouping Credit: Albert Tacon Production Systems PONDS RACEWAYS TANKS Production  Systems  Cont’d CAGES OFFSHORE MARINE CAGES ¿AQUAPODS? Polyculture Aquaponics Horticulture-Fish Integrated System Rice-Fish Integrated System Duck-Fish Integrated System Common Challenges for the Global Fish Farmer • Stagnant or decreasing product prices • Increasing costs of production (*feed costs*) • Finding more effective feeds and feeding strategies (while also replacing marine-derived ingredients (eg. fish meal, fish oil)) • Reducing waste outputs ($$$) Common Challenges for the Global Fish Farmer,  Cont’d • Consumer concerns (eg. composition, safety of products) and demands • Increasing scrutiny over environmental impacts (social  political) • Fish health Anisakis • Lack of access to improved stock (eg. only 8.2% of 2010 production from genetically improved stocks) (Will be using Canadian industry for examples) Feed Costs Credit: Albert Tacon Credit: Albert Tacon Credit: Albert Tacon Fish Meal Use by Species Group (% in diet) (thousand MT) Species group 2000 2010 2000 2010 Channel catfish 3% 0% 15 0 Salmon 40% 25% 454 377 Trout 30% 20% 176 147 Marine fish 45% 40% 415 688 Flatfish 55% 45% 69 263
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