Class Notes (839,242)
Canada (511,223)
ANSC 2340 (44)
Lecture 17

ANSC 2340 Lecture 17: Red Meat Carcass Grading
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11 Pages
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Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 2340
Professor
Ira Mandell

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1. Red Meat Carcass Grading Why Do We Grade Carcasses?  Place carcasses into uniform groups based on similar quality (carcass or eating), saleable meat yield, and value o Facilitates  Production decisions:  How? Producer may decide to feed animals for specific reasons (eating quality, value, meat yield)  Marketing decisions: determined by weight  Basis for producer settlement o Describes value of the carcass o Impartial third party between buyer and seller  Buyers & sellers may disagree on what defines carcass quality  Fair way to assess animal value  Maximum salable meat yield: maximum muscling  Ensures consumers greater consistency and predictability of eating quality in the case of beef o Much better eating experience with high amounts of marbling  Grading is not mandatory o May or may not affect whether the product will be purchased  Export markets  Low quality cuts to Mexico, China, West Indies (won’t care)  High quality cuts to U.S. and Japan (will care)  Food processing; often don’t care  Grading differs from inspection o Inspection is mandatory and ensures the carcass is safe to enter the human food chain o Stamping of carcasses  All inspected carcasses stamped  Not all graded carcasses stamped: “no-roll”  Variation in carcass and eating quality o Within grades: variation in carcass and eating quality, but not as significant as between grades o Between grades  Appearance  Eating quality (tenderness, juiciness, flavor)  Factors that can impact eating quality: o Age o Connective tissue o Fat deposition o (Grading will look at these factors directly or indirectly) Major Factors Affecting Carcass Value  Carcass weight o Part of the equation to determine returns to the producer will include carcass weight (can be live weight is some instances)  Discount carcasses if too light or too heavy  Cutability or saleable meat yield (SMY) o Want to maximize lean meat production  Excess fat is a liability  Quality of the lean meat o Carcass characteristics that will influence appearance, shelf life (USFA), + eating quality (marbling) Pork Grading  Other countries probe carcasses to identify: o Increased marbling:  Why?  Greater eating quality (juiciness, flavor, tenderness) o PSE pork:  Why?  Negative attributes  Ultrasonics can be used to give very accurate assessment of fat and muscle depths, and IMF (not only longissimus) o Ultrasonics = vibrations of frequencies greater than the upper limit of the audible range for humans—that is, greater than about 20 kilohertz Pork Grading (continued)  Grading system in Ontario o Tries to increase uniformity of hogs going to market  Facilitates automated processing  Comparison to cattle and sheep?  No uniformity in the size of the animal  Reduces wastage  Produces a more uniform product for the market  Comparison to cattle and sheep?  Penalizes hogs under 80 kg carcass weight  Want to narrow the size of pigs going to market so they can then use automated processes o Penalizes ridgelings and emaciated pigs  Grid is for barrows and gilts not young boars: boars may produce meat with boar taint  Index for ridgelings is 67  Ridgelings = one or more testes still in the body cavity  Index for emaciated pigs is 80. o How the producer is paid  A price is fixed per kg of carcass: $1.55/ kg  This price will vary due to market conditions o Not dealing with supply management  Pig carcass weight x Grade index/100 x price Know principles of table below:  Higher the yield class number the better  Yield class based on saleable meat lean  High yield value means low back fat value over the longissimus  Highest index values between 80-95  As yield class increases (amount of saleable lean increasing [backfat is decreasing]), grade index increases  Yield class determined from probe fat and muscle depth measurements  Higher numerical value means more saleable lean  BF = mm subcutaneous backfat where the grading probe enters the carcass (between the 3rd and 4th last ribs, 7 cm from the mid-line)  Comparison within 88 kg HCW. What’s the big deal; $2.73 difference? Most likely, the producer has fed them the same for the same length of time. If shipping 200 pigs per week, this small difference means $546/week or $28,392/year Criteria Used in Beef Grading  Maturity or age of the carcass o Older animals = more connective tissue = toucher meat) o Is their cartilage present, or is it fully ossified?  Sex relative to males o Males = more aggressive à dark cutting  Conformation: degree of muscling  Fat characteristics: o color, texture, cover (rapid muscle chilling causing cold shortening)  Lean characteristics: o color, texture, IMF deposition or marbling  Country to country differences in grading criteria  Canada similar to US  Why is age a concern? o Eating quality perspective: consistency of tenderness  Older animals tend to have tougher meat  Amount of connective tissue; primarily collagen (higher)  Characteristics of the connective tissue o Impact on grilled product o Impact on beef prepared with moist heat  Export markets  How do we determine age? o Ear tags that have been registered with animal birthdates  System in place in Canada  Takes priority over any other measure of age in theory  Producer uptake in the registration process? o Dentition  Cattle over 30 months of age (MOA) tend to have more permanent incisors in place; will see more than 3 at 30 MOA Deciduous (baby teeth) versus permanent teeth: see large differences in tooth size and shape and jaw width (and size) Criteria Used in Beef Grading: Maturity or Age of the Carcass  How do we determine age?
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