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ANSC 2340 (44)

Anatomy of the Skull.docx

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University of Guelph
Animal Science
ANSC 2340
Ira Mandell

Anatomy of the Skull Complex Part of Skeleton: - 37 – 38 separate bones - Bones connected by sutures (except for mandible/lower jaw) - Sutures are jagged, immoveable fibrous joints which interlock - Joints are for attaching two bones joint made up of connective tissue or cartilage - Sutures are strips of fibrous tissue that outline and unite margins of bone - Important in young animals as allows growth of skull through extension of individual bones - 85 named openings in the skull foramina, canals, fissures, orbits… act as pathways for - Blood vessels - Spinal cord - Nerves - Orbit (means circle) is the bony socket that protects the eye - Foramen is simply a hole in a bone - Fissure is a groove Anatomy of the Skull: - 2 major divisions - Cranial part cranium or brain case (protects brain) - Facial site of more differences between species - Functions - Brain - Sense organs - Passages for respiratory and digestive tracts External Bones of Cranium: - Cranium is part of the skull which houses and protects the brain - 11 bones - External occipital, interparietal parietal, temporal, frontal - Partially attached on skull - Internal sphenoid, ethmoid External Bones of Cranium: - Occipital - Forms base of skull - Most caudal - Large hole (foramen magnum) where spinal cord enters/attaches - Forms joint with C1 or Atlas - Atlantoocipital joint connects atlas and occipital bone - Damage to this bone would be a problem - Not usually, a problem due to presence of muscles, tendons, ligaments - Interparietal - 2 small bones between occipital and parietal bones (only in horse, cat and dog) - Parietal forms dorsolateral walls of cranium - Not well developed in farm animals unlike humans - Well developed in dog/cat - Temporal - 2 bones ventral to parietal bones - Forms lateral walls of cranium - Contains most of ear structures - Forms joint with mandible - 2 Temporomandibular joints, one on each side - Articular disk between bones, basically makes 2 joints - Lower joint for rotational movement (open/close) - Upper joint for translational movement (sliding jaws forward or side-side) - Frontal - Forehead of skull - Rostral to parietal bones - Rostral means towards nose or mouth - Textbook says towards tip of nose - Forms rostrolateral portion of cranium and a portion of the orbit - Role in captive bolt stunning - Bulls and boars sometime have a problem with massive skulls - Las large paranasal sinus or frontal sinus - Horned cattle corneal process of the frontal bone is the site of horn
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