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1. What is Nutrition.doc

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Animal Science
ANSC 3120

Lecture 1 What is Nutrition?  The Science of... o Food o Nutrients and substances in food o Their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease o The processes by which the organism:  Ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes, excretes food substances Nutritional Science Definition  The study of the “assimilation of and functions dependent on molecules derived from any organism’s environment “ --- M.L. Wahlqvist, Journal of Nutrition 2006  “We are made from the chemicals of the earth, which flow through us as we live” --- Heather Guthrie, Human Nutrition, 1995 Integrative Greek – “upward” Greek – “Downward” Up & Down, Round and Round Anabolism + Catabolism = Metabolism Anabolic Reactions Catabolic Reaction (Require Energy) (Yield Energy) Tissues Nutrient Nutrient Building Building Blocks Blocks Nutrient Intake Recycles Nutrients Waste for Excretion What is Nutrition? 1 Enzymes  Eg Diet Amino Acids  Proteins Amino Acids Cell Structure Energy  Micronutrients – Many Regulatory Roles Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates (& Fibre) Organic Lipid Energy-yielding & chemical building blocks; - molecules Macronutrients containing Protein C-H bonds Vitamins Micronutrients Minerals Inorganic Water Concept of Dietary Essentiality  An essential nutrient is a chemical that is required for normal bodily function, but that cannot be synthesized or cannot be synthesized rapidly enough to meet the needs of the organism o Growth, health, reproduction, etc o Open to interpretation and controversy  The choice of health “marker” (biomarker) or “endpoint” will influence the definition of essentiality, or the perceived requirement o Eg folate  Some extenstions: o Deficiency of the essential nutrient leads to a reproducible pathology Corn diet Niacin Deficiency Pellagra Dementia Sun Sensitivity What is Nutrition? 2 o The essential nutrient is required for a specific role in metabolism Niacin
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