ANSC 2340 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Cervical Vertebrae, Synsacrum, Occipital Condyle

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Skull - only one occipital condyle, large eye orbits & small cranial cavity. Neck - 14 cervical vertebrae in double curve. Thorax - 7 thoracic vertebrae, numbers 2 to 5 are fused. Synsacrum - fusion of thoracic #7, all 14 lumbosacral vertebrae + caudal #1. Tail - caudal #2 to #5, + pygostyle (pyramidal shape) Ribs - total = 7: 2 free and last 5 attached to sternum. Uncinate process - overlaps next rib, found on 2 to 6. Carina - large area for attachement of flight muscles. Radius & ulna - widely spaced for rotation. Carpals, metacarpals & digits - single unit to anchor flight feathers. Shoulder - glenoid - formed by convergence of scapula, coracoid and clavicle. Furcula - wishbone - formed by fused clavicles. Pelvis - pubic bones are open ventrally to allow passage of egg: pygostyle, ischium, pubis, fibula, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, four foot digits, patella, carina of sternum, furcula of 2 clavicles, coracoid, cervical vertebrae.

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