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Lecture 4

ANSC 3180 Lecture 4: Fundamentals of Wildlife Nutrition - Part III
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by OneClass2439092 , Winter 2017
12 Pages
34 Views

Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 3180
Professor
Esther Finegan
Lecture
4

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Species
1.
Physiological status
2.
Pregastric
Postgastric
Postgastric with coprophagy or caecotrophy
Absent in very young herbivorous animals (gut 'flora' is not yet established
and is not needed while milk is the only food source)
Bacteria in GIT
3.
Summary: Essential Nutrients
Brain (also use ketone bodies as energy source)
Red blood cells
Kidney (medulla)
It is not essential in the diet but is internally essential for:
Main energy source (especially for a foetus)
Ex. Weddell seal pup drinks milk with ~60% fat allows pup to grow quickly
(species with a very high energy milk)
Lactose (glucose + galactose) production in the mammary gland
Importance:
Amino acids (except leucine and lysine)
Glycerol
Propionic acid
Lactic acid
Formed by gluconeogenesis from:
Liver (for export to the rest of the body)
Kidney (for own use)
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the…
Glucose
Ex. Honey badger -contents of bee hives are major food source
Animal which maintains a relatively constant core body temperature, despite wide
fluctuations in environmental temperature
Birds -40C
Mammals (eutherian) -38C
Marsupials -34C
Monotremes (platypus, echidna) -30C
Homeostatic Temperature (+/-1C)
Homiotherm/homeotherm (warm-blooded)
Animal with labile core body temperature, which follows changes in ambient
environmental temperature
Includes amphibians and reptiles
'Behavioural homiotherms' -maintain a fairly constant elevated body temperature
by moving between sun and shade (some reptiles)
Poikilotherm (cold-blooded)
Animal whose temperature is determined by heat derived from body metabolic
activity
Endotherm (aka homeotherm)
Animal whose body temperature is determined by heat sources external to the
body
Ectotherm (aka poikilotherm)
A homeothermic animal cannot lose sufficient body heat (generated by
metabolism, or gained from the environment) to maintain a stable core body
temperature
Food intake is reduced
Sweating
Panting
When core body temperature starts to rise,
Upper Critical Temperature (UCT)
A homeothermic animal loses body heat to the environment faster than it is able to
produce heat by increasing its metabolic rate and is unable to maintain a stable
core body temperature
Metabolic rate increase
Food intake may increase
Shivering
When the core body temperature decreases,
Ex. The Japanese Macaque warm themselves by sitting in hot springs
Lower Critical Temperature (LCT)
A homeothermic animal can maintain a stable body temperature without increasing
metabolic heat production by increasing metabolic rate above maintenance levels,
using little (if any) energy
Piloerection or feather fluffing to increase insulation
Postural changes
Use of shelter
Standing in sun
If cool:
Vasodilation
Fur/feathers close to body to reduce insulation
Postural changes
Use of shade
If warm:
Thermoneutral Zone (TNZ)
A homeothermic animal can maintain a stable core temperature without increasing
metabolic heat production above maintenance metabolism AND without
employing any behavioural strategy to conserve or dissipate heat
Ex. Male African Lion standing on termite mound in the sun (no need for shade)
Thermal Comfort Zone (TCZ)
Abbreviations -Heat and Cold
At rest (not sleeping)
In a post-absorptive state
In a thermoneutral environment
Without physical or psychological stress
The metabolic rate of a homeothermic animal:
Metabolism -total of all chemical reactions within an animal
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Energy needs of homeothermic animals correlate more closely with BW0.75 than
with BW
Metabolic Body Weight (BW0.75)
Smaller animals have a higher energy requirement for basal metabolism per unit of
body weight
*a 100kg animal does not need twice as much energy as a 50kg animal
Body Weight (kg) BW0.75 BMR (kcal/day) BMR (kcal/kg)
50 18.8 1316 26.3
100 31.6 2214 22.1
0.1 0.18 12.4 124.5
100 31.6 2214 22.1
Abbreviations -Energy
2 (%N) x 6.25 (100/16) = 12.5% CP
Ex. What is the crude protein (CP) content of a food that contains 2% nitrogen?
Milk protein -15.7% N (6.38)
Soybean meal protein -17.5% N (5.7)
Most meat/eggs -16% (6.25)
Based on an average value for nitrogen in proteins of 16% but there are
exceptions:
(%N) x 6.25 = % CP
(%CP) / 6.25 = 6.25 % N
General Formula (provided):
Crude Protein < > Nitrogen
5 kcals x 4.2 (or 4.184) = 21 kJ
21 kJ x 1000 = 21,000 J
Ex. What is the energy content (in J/g) of a food that contains 5 kilocalories/g?
Calories (cal) x 4.184 = Joules (J)
Joules (J) x 0.239 = Calories (cal)
Cal /1000 = kcal
Kcal /1000 = Mcal
J /1000 = kJ
General Formulas:
*USA use calories; UK use joules
*Cal = kcal
Calories < > Joules
Conversions
GE = gross energy
DE = GE -FE (faecal energy)
!
DE = digestible energy (energy available after digestion)
ME = DE -UE (urine energy) -gas energy
!
ME = energy available for metabolism
NE = ME -heat loss (inefficiency)
!
NE = net energy (for production and maintenance)
Energy forms:
Fat -9kcal/g DM
Fat is highly digestible (97%) so GE = DE = ME = 9 kcal
What is the energy value of 1 g of fat in kilocalories?
Carbohydrate -4kcal/g DM
99% sucrose -0% cellulose in monogastrics without coprophagy
!
>0% -<100% in ruminants and hindgut fermenters
!
Digestibility of carbohydrates is highly variable:
What is the energy value of 1 g of carbohydrate in kilocalories?
Protein: 4-5 kcal/g DM
Protein (meat) is highly digestible (99%) so GE=DE is 5kcal
Mammals -urea
!
Birds, reptiles -uric acid (urea is poisonous in the egg) *includes
monotremes
!
Also includes axolotl salamander with external gills (stays immature
but still reproduces)
Fish -NH3 through gills
!
BUT, ME = 4kcal when protein is used for energy and waste N must be excreted:
What is the energy value of 1 g of protein in kilocalories?
Calculations
60-80% (average of 70%)
High fat animal
Animal at onset of winter (pre-hibernation/migration)
Obese animal may have as low as 40% water
60% :
Lean animal
Young growing animal
Neonate 71 -88% water
80%:
Fat/adipose -~15% water
Protein/lean/muscle tissue -~75% water
Because
Animal Water Content
70 kg man ? --> ~3000kcal
50 kg woman? --> 2400 kcal
What is the daily energy requirement of a
Provides a good comparative value in subsequent animal calculations
Daily Energy Requirements
Question: Which nutrients are essential?
Simple digestive tract
Pregastric fermentation
Postgastric fermentation
Caecotrophy/ copraphagy?
Does the animal have…1.
What is the age of the animal?2.
Are there unusual nutrient requirements for this species?3.
Newborn
Bison
Pregnant
Leopard
Adult (M)
Squirrel
Adult
Buck Deer
Fox Chimpan
zee
Nutrients Non-
ruminant
immediately
after birth
Felid
species
(pregnancy
is not
relevant)
Monogastric
(adult male
is not
relevant)
Adult
ruminant
Monogast
ric
(omnivor
e)
Monogas
tric
(primate)
Aspartic Acid No No No No No No
Taurine No Yes No No No No
Cobalt No No No Yes No No
Tryptophan Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Arachidonic
Acid
No Yes No No No No
Chlorine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Potassium Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Adenosine No No No No No No
Choline No No Yes No No No
Eicosapentanoic
Acid
No Yes No No No No
Retinoic Acid No Yes No No No No
Beta-Carotene No No No No Yes No
Vitamin E
(alpha-
tocopherol)
No No Yes No No No
Ascorbic Acid No No No No No Yes
*uses and deficiencies of B vitamins are not on the quiz/exam
*colder it gets, the more
food an animal requires
*temperatures vary
depending on time of day
and season
Fundamentals of Wildlife Nutrition -Part III
Wednesday,+ January+25,+2017
1:01+PM
Species1.
Physiological status 2.
Pregastric
Postgastric
Postgastric with coprophagy or caecotrophy
Absent in very young herbivorous animals (gut 'flora' is not yet established
and is not needed while milk is the only food source)
Bacteria in GIT 3.
Nutrient essentiality depends on:
Summary: Essential Nutrients
Brain (also use ketone bodies as energy source)
Red blood cells
Kidney (medulla)
It is not essential in the diet but is internally essential for:
Main energy source (especially for a foetus)
Ex. Weddell seal pup drinks milk with ~60% fat allows pup to grow quickly
(species with a very high energy milk)
Lactose (glucose + galactose) production in the mammary gland
Importance:
Amino acids (except leucine and lysine)
Glycerol
Propionic acid
Lactic acid
Formed by gluconeogenesis from:
Liver (for export to the rest of the body)
Kidney (for own use)
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the…
Glucose
Ex. Honey badger -contents of bee hives are major food source
Animal which maintains a relatively constant core body temperature, despite wide
fluctuations in environmental temperature
Birds -40C
Mammals (eutherian) -38C
Marsupials -34C
Monotremes (platypus, echidna) -30C
Homeostatic Temperature (+/-1C)
Homiotherm/homeotherm (warm-blooded)
Animal with labile core body temperature, which follows changes in ambient
environmental temperature
Includes amphibians and reptiles
'Behavioural homiotherms' -maintain a fairly constant elevated body temperature
by moving between sun and shade (some reptiles)
Poikilotherm (cold-blooded)
Animal whose temperature is determined by heat derived from body metabolic
activity
Endotherm (aka homeotherm)
Animal whose body temperature is determined by heat sources external to the
body
Ectotherm (aka poikilotherm)
A homeothermic animal cannot lose sufficient body heat (generated by
metabolism, or gained from the environment) to maintain a stable core body
temperature
Food intake is reduced
Sweating
Panting
When core body temperature starts to rise,
Upper Critical Temperature (UCT)
A homeothermic animal loses body heat to the environment faster than it is able to
produce heat by increasing its metabolic rate and is unable to maintain a stable
core body temperature
Metabolic rate increase
Food intake may increase
Shivering
When the core body temperature decreases,
Ex. The Japanese Macaque warm themselves by sitting in hot springs
Lower Critical Temperature (LCT)
A homeothermic animal can maintain a stable body temperature without increasing
metabolic heat production by increasing metabolic rate above maintenance levels,
using little (if any) energy
Piloerection or feather fluffing to increase insulation
Postural changes
Use of shelter
Standing in sun
If cool:
Vasodilation
Fur/feathers close to body to reduce insulation
Postural changes
Use of shade
If warm:
Thermoneutral Zone (TNZ)
A homeothermic animal can maintain a stable core temperature without increasing
metabolic heat production above maintenance metabolism AND without
employing any behavioural strategy to conserve or dissipate heat
Ex. Male African Lion standing on termite mound in the sun (no need for shade)
Thermal Comfort Zone (TCZ)
Abbreviations -Heat and Cold
At rest (not sleeping)
In a post-absorptive state
In a thermoneutral environment
Without physical or psychological stress
The metabolic rate of a homeothermic animal:
Metabolism -total of all chemical reactions within an animal
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Energy needs of homeothermic animals correlate more closely with BW0.75 than
with BW
Metabolic Body Weight (BW0.75)
Smaller animals have a higher energy requirement for basal metabolism per unit of
body weight
*a 100kg animal does not need twice as much energy as a 50kg animal
Body Weight (kg) BW0.75 BMR (kcal/day) BMR (kcal/kg)
50 18.8 1316 26.3
100 31.6 2214 22.1
0.1 0.18 12.4 124.5
100 31.6 2214 22.1
Abbreviations -Energy
2 (%N) x 6.25 (100/16) = 12.5% CP
Ex. What is the crude protein (CP) content of a food that contains 2% nitrogen?
Milk protein -15.7% N (6.38)
Soybean meal protein -17.5% N (5.7)
Most meat/eggs -16% (6.25)
Based on an average value for nitrogen in proteins of 16% but there are
exceptions:
(%N) x 6.25 = % CP
(%CP) / 6.25 = 6.25 % N
General Formula (provided):
Crude Protein < > Nitrogen
5 kcals x 4.2 (or 4.184) = 21 kJ
21 kJ x 1000 = 21,000 J
Ex. What is the energy content (in J/g) of a food that contains 5 kilocalories/g?
Calories (cal) x 4.184 = Joules (J)
Joules (J) x 0.239 = Calories (cal)
Cal /1000 = kcal
Kcal /1000 = Mcal
J /1000 = kJ
General Formulas:
*USA use calories; UK use joules
*Cal = kcal
Calories < > Joules
Conversions
GE = gross energy
DE = GE -FE (faecal energy)
!
DE = digestible energy (energy available after digestion)
ME = DE -UE (urine energy) -gas energy
!
ME = energy available for metabolism
NE = ME -heat loss (inefficiency)
!
NE = net energy (for production and maintenance)
Energy forms:
Fat -9kcal/g DM
Fat is highly digestible (97%) so GE = DE = ME = 9 kcal
What is the energy value of 1 g of fat in kilocalories?
Carbohydrate -4kcal/g DM
99% sucrose -0% cellulose in monogastrics without coprophagy
!
>0% -<100% in ruminants and hindgut fermenters
!
Digestibility of carbohydrates is highly variable:
What is the energy value of 1 g of carbohydrate in kilocalories?
Protein: 4-5 kcal/g DM
Protein (meat) is highly digestible (99%) so GE=DE is 5kcal
Mammals -urea
!
Birds, reptiles -uric acid (urea is poisonous in the egg) *includes
monotremes
!
Also includes axolotl salamander with external gills (stays immature
but still reproduces)
Fish -NH3 through gills
!
BUT, ME = 4kcal when protein is used for energy and waste N must be excreted:
What is the energy value of 1 g of protein in kilocalories?
Calculations
60-80% (average of 70%)
High fat animal
Animal at onset of winter (pre-hibernation/migration)
Obese animal may have as low as 40% water
60% :
Lean animal
Young growing animal
Neonate 71 -88% water
80%:
Fat/adipose -~15% water
Protein/lean/muscle tissue -~75% water
Because
Animal Water Content
70 kg man ? --> ~3000kcal
50 kg woman? --> 2400 kcal
What is the daily energy requirement of a
Provides a good comparative value in subsequent animal calculations
Daily Energy Requirements
Question: Which nutrients are essential?
Simple digestive tract
Pregastric fermentation
Postgastric fermentation
Caecotrophy/ copraphagy?
Does the animal have…1.
What is the age of the animal?2.
Are there unusual nutrient requirements for this species?3.
Newborn
Bison
Pregnant
Leopard
Adult (M)
Squirrel
Adult
Buck Deer
Fox Chimpan
zee
Nutrients Non-
ruminant
immediately
after birth
Felid
species
(pregnancy
is not
relevant)
Monogastric
(adult male
is not
relevant)
Adult
ruminant
Monogast
ric
(omnivor
e)
Monogas
tric
(primate)
Aspartic Acid No No No No No No
Taurine No Yes No No No No
Cobalt No No No Yes No No
Tryptophan Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Arachidonic
Acid
No Yes No No No No
Chlorine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Potassium Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Adenosine No No No No No No
Choline No No Yes No No No
Eicosapentanoic
Acid
No Yes No No No No
Retinoic Acid No Yes No No No No
Beta-Carotene No No No No Yes No
Vitamin E
(alpha-
tocopherol)
No No Yes No No No
Ascorbic Acid No No No No No Yes
*uses and deficiencies of B vitamins are not on the quiz/exam
*colder it gets, the more
food an animal requires
*temperatures vary
depending on time of day
and season
Fundamentals of Wildlife Nutrition -Part III
Wednesday,+ January+25,+2017 1:01+PM
Species1.
Physiological status 2.
Pregastric
Postgastric
Postgastric with coprophagy or caecotrophy
Absent in very young herbivorous animals (gut 'flora' is not yet established
and is not needed while milk is the only food source)
Bacteria in GIT 3.
Nutrient essentiality depends on:
Summary: Essential Nutrients
Brain (also use ketone bodies as energy source)
Red blood cells
Kidney (medulla)
It is not essential in the diet but is internally essential for:
Main energy source (especially for a foetus)
Ex. Weddell seal pup drinks milk with ~60% fat allows pup to grow quickly
(species with a very high energy milk)
Lactose (glucose + galactose) production in the mammary gland
Importance:
Amino acids (except leucine and lysine)
Glycerol
Propionic acid
Lactic acid
Formed by gluconeogenesis from:
Liver (for export to the rest of the body)
Kidney (for own use)
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the…
Glucose
Ex. Honey badger -contents of bee hives are major food source
Animal which maintains a relatively constant core body temperature, despite wide
fluctuations in environmental temperature
Birds -40C
Mammals (eutherian) -38C
Marsupials -34C
Monotremes (platypus, echidna) -30C
Homeostatic Temperature (+/-1C)
Homiotherm/homeotherm (warm-blooded)
Animal with labile core body temperature, which follows changes in ambient
environmental temperature
'Behavioural homiotherms' -maintain a fairly constant elevated body temperature
by moving between sun and shade (some reptiles)
Poikilotherm (cold-blooded)
Animal whose temperature is determined by heat derived from body metabolic
activity
Endotherm (aka homeotherm)
Animal whose body temperature is determined by heat sources external to the
body
Ectotherm (aka poikilotherm)
A homeothermic animal cannot lose sufficient body heat (generated by
metabolism, or gained from the environment) to maintain a stable core body
temperature
Food intake is reduced
Sweating
Panting
When core body temperature starts to rise,
Upper Critical Temperature (UCT)
A homeothermic animal loses body heat to the environment faster than it is able to
produce heat by increasing its metabolic rate and is unable to maintain a stable
core body temperature
Metabolic rate increase
Food intake may increase
Shivering
When the core body temperature decreases,
Ex. The Japanese Macaque warm themselves by sitting in hot springs
Lower Critical Temperature (LCT)
A homeothermic animal can maintain a stable body temperature without increasing
metabolic heat production by increasing metabolic rate above maintenance levels,
using little (if any) energy
Piloerection or feather fluffing to increase insulation
Postural changes
Use of shelter
Standing in sun
If cool:
Vasodilation
Fur/feathers close to body to reduce insulation
Postural changes
Use of shade
If warm:
Thermoneutral Zone (TNZ)
A homeothermic animal can maintain a stable core temperature without increasing
metabolic heat production above maintenance metabolism AND without
employing any behavioural strategy to conserve or dissipate heat
Ex. Male African Lion standing on termite mound in the sun (no need for shade)
Thermal Comfort Zone (TCZ)
Abbreviations -Heat and Cold
At rest (not sleeping)
In a post-absorptive state
In a thermoneutral environment
Without physical or psychological stress
The metabolic rate of a homeothermic animal:
Metabolism -total of all chemical reactions within an animal
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Energy needs of homeothermic animals correlate more closely with BW0.75 than
with BW
Metabolic Body Weight (BW0.75)
Smaller animals have a higher energy requirement for basal metabolism per unit of
body weight
*a 100kg animal does not need twice as much energy as a 50kg animal
Body Weight (kg) BW0.75 BMR (kcal/day) BMR (kcal/kg)
50 18.8 1316 26.3
100 31.6 2214 22.1
0.1 0.18 12.4 124.5
100 31.6 2214 22.1
Abbreviations -Energy
2 (%N) x 6.25 (100/16) = 12.5% CP
Ex. What is the crude protein (CP) content of a food that contains 2% nitrogen?
Milk protein -15.7% N (6.38)
Soybean meal protein -17.5% N (5.7)
Most meat/eggs -16% (6.25)
Based on an average value for nitrogen in proteins of 16% but there are
exceptions:
(%N) x 6.25 = % CP
(%CP) / 6.25 = 6.25 % N
General Formula (provided):
Crude Protein < > Nitrogen
5 kcals x 4.2 (or 4.184) = 21 kJ
21 kJ x 1000 = 21,000 J
Ex. What is the energy content (in J/g) of a food that contains 5 kilocalories/g?
Calories (cal) x 4.184 = Joules (J)
Joules (J) x 0.239 = Calories (cal)
Cal /1000 = kcal
Kcal /1000 = Mcal
J /1000 = kJ
General Formulas:
*USA use calories; UK use joules
*Cal = kcal
Calories < > Joules
Conversions
GE = gross energy
DE = GE -FE (faecal energy)
!
DE = digestible energy (energy available after digestion)
ME = DE -UE (urine energy) -gas energy
!
ME = energy available for metabolism
NE = ME -heat loss (inefficiency)
!
NE = net energy (for production and maintenance)
Energy forms:
Fat -9kcal/g DM
Fat is highly digestible (97%) so GE = DE = ME = 9 kcal
What is the energy value of 1 g of fat in kilocalories?
Carbohydrate -4kcal/g DM
99% sucrose -0% cellulose in monogastrics without coprophagy
!
>0% -<100% in ruminants and hindgut fermenters
!
Digestibility of carbohydrates is highly variable:
What is the energy value of 1 g of carbohydrate in kilocalories?
Protein: 4-5 kcal/g DM
Protein (meat) is highly digestible (99%) so GE=DE is 5kcal
Mammals -urea
!
Birds, reptiles -uric acid (urea is poisonous in the egg) *includes
monotremes
!
Also includes axolotl salamander with external gills (stays immature
but still reproduces)
Fish -NH3 through gills
!
BUT, ME = 4kcal when protein is used for energy and waste N must be excreted:
What is the energy value of 1 g of protein in kilocalories?
Calculations
60-80% (average of 70%)
High fat animal
Animal at onset of winter (pre-hibernation/migration)
Obese animal may have as low as 40% water
60% :
Lean animal
Young growing animal
Neonate 71 -88% water
80%:
Fat/adipose -~15% water
Protein/lean/muscle tissue -~75% water
Because
Animal Water Content
70 kg man ? --> ~3000kcal
50 kg woman? --> 2400 kcal
What is the daily energy requirement of a
Provides a good comparative value in subsequent animal calculations
Daily Energy Requirements
Question: Which nutrients are essential?
Simple digestive tract
Pregastric fermentation
Postgastric fermentation
Caecotrophy/ copraphagy?
Does the animal have…1.
What is the age of the animal?2.
Are there unusual nutrient requirements for this species?3.
Newborn
Bison
Pregnant
Leopard
Adult (M)
Squirrel
Adult
Buck Deer
Fox Chimpan
zee
Nutrients Non-
ruminant
immediately
after birth
Felid
species
(pregnancy
is not
relevant)
Monogastric
(adult male
is not
relevant)
Adult
ruminant
Monogast
ric
(omnivor
e)
Monogas
tric
(primate)
Aspartic Acid No No No No No No
Taurine No Yes No No No No
Cobalt No No No Yes No No
Tryptophan Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Arachidonic
Acid
No Yes No No No No
Chlorine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Potassium Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Adenosine No No No No No No
Choline No No Yes No No No
Eicosapentanoic
Acid
No Yes No No No No
Retinoic Acid No Yes No No No No
Beta-Carotene No No No No Yes No
Vitamin E
(alpha-
tocopherol)
No No Yes No No No
Ascorbic Acid No No No No No Yes
*uses and deficiencies of B vitamins are not on the quiz/exam
*colder it gets, the more
food an animal requires
*temperatures vary
depending on time of day
and season
Fundamentals of Wildlife Nutrition -Part III
Wednesday,+ January+25,+2017 1:01+PM

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Description
Fundamentalsof WildlifeNutrition Part III Wednesday, January 251:01 PM Summary: Essential Nutrients Nutrientessentialitydependson: 1. Species 2. Physiological status 3. Bacteria in GIT Pregastric Postgastric Postgastric with coprophagy or caecotrophy Absentin veryyoung herbivorousanimals(gutflora isnotyetestablished andisnotneededwhilemilkistheonlyfoodsource) Glucose It is notessentialin the dietbut is internallyessential for: Brain (also use ketone bodies asenergysource) Red blood cells Kidney (medulla) Importance: Main energy source(especially for a foetus) Lactose (glucose +galactose) productionin the mammarygland Ex. Weddell seal pupdrinks milkwith ~60fat allows pupto growquickly (species with a very high energymilk) Formed by gluconeogenesisfrom: Amino acids(exceptleucineandlysine) Glycerol Propionic acid Lactic acid Gluconeogenesisoccursin the Liver (for export to the rest of thebody) Kidney (forown use) Ex. Honey badger contentsofbeehivesaremajorfoodsource Abbreviations Heatand Cold Homiothermhomeotherm(warm blooded) Animalwhichmaintainsa relativelyconstantcore bodytemperature,despitewide fluctuations in environmental temperature Homeostatic Temperature (+ 1C) *colderitgets,themore Birds 40C food an animalrequires
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