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Lecture 2

ANSC 3180 Lecture 2: Fundamentals of Wildlife Nutrition - Part I
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14 Pages
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Winter 2017

Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 3180
Professor
Esther Finegan
Lecture
2

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Undomesticated animal; not living under human control
Untamed
Wild Animals:
Progenitors/ ancestors/ forebears have undergone a domestication process
Kept under direct human control
Domesticated Animals:
Living space
Animal care
Selection of mating partners
Reproduction (supervised or controlled)
An evolutionary process during which these factors are controlled:
As the process continues, the species is genetically altered from its wild ancestral
form
Domestication Process:
Animal that has been familiarized with humans so as to be tractable (can be wild or
domesticated)
Tame Animal:
Any animal that lives in the wild state, but whose ancestors had undergone a
domestication process
Feral Animal:
Undomesticated
1.
Not under human control
2.
Untame
3.
In this course, wildlife:
Mammals: monotremes, marsupials and eutherians
Nutrition and Feeding:
Process whereby an animal gets and processes portions of its external
environment (food) for the continued functioning of its internal metabolism
The study of the nutrients in food, that each animal must obtain from its
environment, and how these nutrients are used to support maintenance,
growth and reproduction
Prehension -grasping/seizing food items
!
Ingestion -intake of food into the body
!
Mechanical -by chewing or muscular contractions of the gut
(gizzard in birds)
Chemical -in the stomach (proventriculus and gizzard in birds),
the small intestine
Microbial -in herbivores, in the forestomach, caecum, or colon,
by bacteria
Digestion -break down of large complex food compounds (often
insoluble) into smaller, simpler compounds (usually soluble)
!
Absorption -of simple nutrient molecules from the gut into the blood or
lymph
!
Elimination -removal from the body of undigested and unabsorbed
food, and waste products
!
Prehension, ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination
Nutrition
Eating -solid food
!
Drinking -liquid food/water
!
Breathing -oxygen
!
Material taken in by the animal and which contains one or more nutrients:
Food
Organic and inorganic chemical compounds in food, required by the animal to
support maintenance, growth and reproduction
Nutrients
What is food?
Oxygen 1)
Water (free, in food, metabolic) 2)
Carbohydrates (sugars; CHO)3)
Proteins (amino acids; CHONSP)4)
Fats/Lipids (fatty acids; CHONP)5)
Vitamins (CHONS)6)
Minerals7)
Groups:
Some contain up to 6 nutrient groups (e.g. milk), some only contain one
(e.g. salt)
!
Foods:
Carbon as C-C or C-H
!
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Includes:
!
Organic Nutrients:
Oxygen
Water
Minerals
Includes:
!
Inorganic Nutrients:
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins
!
Energy is not a nutrient but is derived from nutrients
!
Energy-Yielding Nutrients:
Free (lakes/ rivers)
!
Fresh grass (~77% water)
Non-fat animal tissue (~70% water)
Oats (~11% water)
Air-dried desert seeds (2-3% water)
Water in food
!
Produced when nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) are
broken down by oxidation to produce energy, CO2 and water
Ex. Kangaroo rat obtains all water from food and metabolic
processes
Metabolic water *in most desert species
!
Water:
Nutrient groups
One which cannot be synthesized by the animal itself or by any micro-
organisms present in the GI tract (gut) OR one which cannot be synthesized
fast enough to meet requirements (and therefore must be present in the diet)
Water (1)
!
Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine
!
Histidine (slow)
!
Isoleucine
!
Leucine
!
Lysine
!
Methionine (S) -->
Cysteine -->
**Taurine
*Taurine is essential for
all cats (felids) -synthesis
is slow
*Cystine = 2 Cysteines
!
Threonine
!
Valine
!
Arginine (slow)
!
Tryptophan (destroyed; acid hydrolysis analysis)
!
Essential
:
PHILLMTVAT = fill the
empty vat
Alanine
!
Asparagine
!
Aspartic Acid
!
Cysteine
!
Glutamic Acid
!
Glutamine
!
Glycine
!
Proline
!
Serine
!
Tyrosine
!
Non-essential: for protein synthesis
Amino Acids (10)
!
Gamma-linolenic acid > *arachidonic acid (n6) < >
docosapentaenoic acid (n6)
!
Linoleic Acid (n6)
*Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n3) < > docohexaenoic acid
(n3)
!
Alpha-Linolenic Acid (n3)
For: cell, nuclear, mitochondrial membrane phospholipids
* = EFAs for strict carnivores 'only' (e.g. cats)
Fatty Acids (2)
!
A, D, E, K
Fat-Soluble Vitamins (4)
!
B1 -thiamine
!
B2 -riboflavin
!
Pantothenic acid
!
Niacin/ niacinamide
!
Biotin
!
Pyridoxine
!
Cyanocobalamin
!
Folic acid (folacin)
!
B Vitamins:
Vitamin C: ascorbic acid
Water-Soluble Vitamins (9)
!
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S
Macro Minerals (7) -measured in mg/g body DM
!
Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, I, Se, Fl, Cr
Trace/Micro Minerals (9-14) -measured in ug/g
!
For humans (42-47):
Essential nutrients:
What's in food?
Review:
Starch (glucose polymer)
!
Cellulose (glucose polymer)
!
Hemicellulose (5C/6C sugars)
!
Polysaccharides (insoluble) are made up of monosaccharides (sugars):
Pentoses (5C): ribose
!
Hexoses (6C): glucose, fructose and galactose
!
Monosaccharides (soluble sugars):
Sucrose: glucose + fructose
!
Lactose: glucose + galactose
!
Disaccharides (soluble sugars):
Types:
Glycogen (emergency energy store, liver muscle)
Nucleic acids (RNA/ribose, DNA/deoxyribose)
Animal Carbohydrates:
Starch (main energy storage)
Cellulose, hemicellulose (cell walls)
Nucleic acid
Plant Carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates:
They eat their feces to extract more starch from the leaves
Ex. Northern sportive lemur in Madagascar: caecotrophy releases starches from leaves
Proteins (1 or more polypeptide chains) are made up of amino acids linked by
peptide bonds
Over 200 other aa found in animals and plants are not used for protein
synthesis
For protein synthesis: 20 aa are required
E.g. Glycine: NH2-CH2-COOH *simplest amino acid
General structure: amino group (NH2) + carboxyl group (COOH)
Muscle, ligaments, tendons, bone framework, enzymes, some hormones,
haemoglobin, antibodies, keratin (hair, wool, feathers, horn, nails, claws)
Keratin contains comparatively high amount of cysteine (sulphur-containing
amino acid)
Animal Proteins:
Seeds (protein for germinating seedling)
Enzymes
Plant Proteins:
Proteins:
Ex. Bat feeding on nectar: protein is limiting; is only found in pollen
Fats are solid at room temperature
Oils are liquid at room temperature
Fats & Oils (Lipids)
3 FA + 1 glycerol = triglyceride
2 FA + 1 phosphate + 1 glycerol = phospholipid
Composition:
Methyl group (CH3) + carboxyl group (COOH)
E.g. Acetic Acid: CH3-COOH
E.g. Propionic Acid: CH3-CH2-COOH *found in stomach of ruminants
FA Structure:
CH2OH + FA
CHOH + FA
CH2OH + FA
Glycerol Structure:
E.g. Linoleic Acid 18:2 n-6 (omega 6) *18C with 2 double bonds
No double bonds -saturated FA (animal fats, butter)
1 double bond -monounsaturated (n-9, omega 9), (olive oil, avocado,
peanuts, almonds)
ALA: flaxseed, soybean, phytoplankton
EPA/DHA: fish
N-3 (omega 3): first double bond is at 3rd C from methyl end
!
LA: corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil
N-6 (omega 6): first double bond is at 6th C from methyl end
!
2 or more double bonds -polyunsaturated FA
Naming Fatty Acids:
Melting point increases
Solubility in water decreases
Melting point decreases with increasing double bonds
As the number of C increases….
Fats
Ex. Fat-tailed gerbil stores fat in the base of its tail
Ex. Wild bactrian camel stores fat in the two humps
Ex. Quetzel -eats wild avocados as a large component of its diet
Hydrophobic
only contains ~15% water
compact/concentrated
Adipose (fat) tissue,
!
Animals are mobile -use fat because it contains less water than
carbohydrates
!
Usually TG with long chain (mainly saturated FA)
!
Long-term storage in animals
Must be mobile for dispersal
!
Mainly mono-or poly-unsaturated fatty acids
!
Storage as nuts/seeds in plants
Ex. Northern raccoon
Fats1.
Hydrophilic
Therefore, it is not used as a major energy store (they
would get too fat)
!
1g of glycogen is stored with 3-4g of water
Glycogen
!
Stored in liver and muscle
!
Short-term storage in animals
No need for mobility (perennials)
!
Starch is a common storage (e.g. potatoe plant)
!
Long-term storage in plants
Carbohydrates2.
Energy Storage:
Organic compounds, required in minute amounts = micronutrient
Not used as structural components in animals
Regulate body processes (D)
Act as coenzymes (most B, C)
Antioxidants (C, E)
Cannot be synthesized
Must be obtain from diet (plants or microbes)
Ex. Fenec fox uses beta-carotene instead of Vitamin A
!
Not all vitamins required by all animals; some 'vitamins' are synthesized by
some animals
Vitamins or derivatives:
Retinol, retinal (retinoic acid) -in liver/ fish oil
Beta-carotene (precursor for retinal/retinol in intestinal wall) -in
orange/yellow plant material
Forms:
!
For: cell synthesis, vision (retina: visual pigments, rhodopsin (rods, dim
light), iodopsin (cones, colour and bright light)
!
Storage in live (carotenes in fat)
!
carotenes are not toxic -low efficiency of absorption and
conversion
Vitamin A can be toxic
!
Deficiency: night blindness
!
Not essential for dogs, foxes, mink (use beta-carotene)
Preformed vitamin A (not beta-carotene) is essential for cats, marine
birds and some mammals (higher requirement for cats and polar bears)
!
Vitamin A
D2 (ergocalciferol) -from sunlight (UV) on cut plants (hay,
irradiated yeast)
*D3 (cholecalciferol) -from sunlight (UV) on animal skin, phyto
& zooplankton, marine fish oil
Forms:
!
Synthesis: sunlight (UV) on animal skin on 7-dehydroxycholesterol -->
pre-vitamin D3 (fast) --> cholecalciferol (thermal reaction, slow) -->
liver --> kidney as active vitamin D
!
Less UV in winter and when cloudy
!
No UV through window glass
!
For: Ca & P deposition to and resorption from bone and teeth, egg shell
formation
!
Storage: in liver and fat (minimal in land vertebrates)
!
Can be toxic: Ca build-up in organs and tissues
!
Deficiency: rickets (soft bones in young) and osteomalacia (brittle
bones in adults)
!
insufficient exposure to UV (sunlight)
polar regions
Fossorial (burrowing)
Nocturnal
Indoors
Vitamin D is only required in diet if:
!
Mammals can use D3 or D2
Vitamin D3 is essential for amphibians, birds and reptiles (cannot use
D2)
!
Vitamin D
Alpha-tocopherol
!
Prevents the formation of peroxidases (Se in enzyme glutathione
peroxidase which breaks down peroxide)
Maintains integrity of cellular and subcellular membranes by
preventing lipid peroxidation of unsaturated Fas
For: antioxidant (with Se)
!
Storage: fat
!
Vitamin E and selenium are not always interchangeable
!
Nutritional muscular dystrophy (muscle weakness, paralysis)
In rats and birds --> infertility (M sterility, F foetal development)
Deficiency:
!
Vitamin E
K1 (phylloquinone) -in dark green plants
K2 (menaquinone) -from gut bacteria
K3 (menadione) -synthetic; -->menaquinone by gut bacteria
Forms:
!
For: blood clotting
!
Storage is minimal
!
Delay in blood clot formation
Antibiotics destroy gut bacteria which produce vitamin K
Warfarin was used as poison (they could not form blood
clots) until rats and wild rodents became resistant
!
Warfarin Vitamin K inhibitor
Deficiency:
!
Vitamin K
Fat-Soluble:
B Vitamins: in coenzymes and for energy metabolism
*only need to know names of vitamins
Vitami
n
Coenzymes Deficiency/Notes
Thiami
ne (B1)
TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) Beri-beri: fatigue, polished rice
Ribofla
vin
(B2)
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
FMN (flavin mononucleotide)
Pantoth
enic
Acid
Co-enzyme A
Niacin
(nicotin
ic acid)
Niacina
mide
(nicotin
amide)
NAD, NADP (nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide/phosphate)
Pellagra (dermatitis) -some
synthesis from tryptophan
(inefficient)
Biotin Dermatitis
Other B Vitamins:
Vitami
n
Uses Deficiency/Notes
Pyridox
ine
(B6)
Pyridox
al
Pyridox
amine
Cofactor, amino acid metabolism -high requirement in carnivores
Cyanoc
obalami
n (B12)
Co-enzyme, rbc synthesis Deficiency: pernivious
anaemia
Storage: in liver
-only made by microbes (not
plants) therefore, a problem for
vegans
Folic
Acid
(Folaci
n)
Co-enzyme, RNA/DNA synthesis Deficiency: anaemia
-cancer drugs inhibit use
Antioxidant
Formation of collagen & elastin (wound repair)
As a coenzyme
Uses:
!
Deficiency: scurvy, hair loss & dermatitis
!
Not essential for reptiles, amphibians, most birds, most mammals
(synthesized in kidney and/or liver)
Essential for invertebrates, fish, primates, bats, whales, some birds,
guinea pigs
!
Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid
Water-Soluble:
Grouped with water soluble vitamins but required in larger amounts that true
vitamins and can be synthesized by animals
structure of cellular membranes
export of lipids from liver
Can be made from methionine (too slow in growing animals)
For:
!
Requirement: >1% DM diet (high for a vitamin)
!
Needed in diet for rats and mice (in labs)
!
Deficiency: fatty liver
!
Choline:
Structure of cell membranes
For:
!
Can be synthesized but often too slowly
!
Needed in diet for rodents
!
Deficiency: fatty liver (also for gerbils)
!
Inositol:
Water-Soluble "Vitamins"
Vitamins
Inorganic
Cannot be 'made' by any animal or plant (plants obtain minerals from soil)
Must be obtained from diet
Characteristics:
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S (7)
Some used as structural components (Ca, P)
major mineral constituent of animal body (bones, teeth, antlers,
egg shells, milk)
Ca:
!
second major mineral (bones, teeth antlers, milk, cell membranes,
energy metabolism in ATP)
2 high energy P bonds --> AMP adenosine monophosphate
P:
!
Storage: bone, teeth
Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia (also vitamin D deficiency)
Osteophagia -bone chewing
Ex. Sulawesi Babirusa
2 Ca: 1 P
Ca & P:
!
For: bones, teeth, enzymes, Mg blood level controls nerve and
muscle function
Storage: bones, teeth
Mg:
!
For: main cation in extracellular solution, maintains fluid volume,
acid-base balance, tissue pH
'specific hunger' -deficiency and potential source recognized
(water also)
Na:
!
For: main anioin in body fluids, gastric acidity (HCl) and
digestion
Ex. Viscacha rat removes salt crystal before eating from the salt
bush
Cl:
!
For: main intracellular cation, maintains fluid volume, acid-base
balance, tissue pH
Ex. Wild-living sika deer in Asia contain insufficient potassium
K:
!
For: insulin, S-containing amino acids (methionine, cysteine)
S:
!
Essential:
Macrominerals (mg/g DM in body):
Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, I, Se, Fl, Cr (9)
Co -for ruminants (due to bacteria)
Major micromineral in animal body
Camels are highly adapted with round/oval blood cells that
are long and thin to flow more easily through the blood
vessels because they have thicker blood (less water in
desert environments)
!
For: haemoglobin (O2 in rbc), myoglobin (emergency O2 in
muscles), some enzymes
Storage: in liver
Deficiency: anaemia
Geophagia -soil eating *to make up for iron deficiency
Fe:
!
For: haemoglobin, melanin formation
Storage: in liver
Can be toxic
Deficiency: anaemia, faded coat
Conditioned deficiency -if adequate Cu, excess Mo (makes
copper less effective)
Cu
!
For: synthesis of DNA & RNA, feather pigmentation,
component/co-factor in many enzymes
Storage: bone, liver
Can be toxic
Deficiency -if adequate Zn but excess Ca (makes zinc less
effective)
Zn
!
For: cartilaginous matrix of bones, energy metabolism (cofactor
in oxidative phosphorylation)
Storage: bone, liver
Mn
!
In: sea water (marine fish and plants)
For: thyroid hormones
Deficiency: goiter (thyroid enlargement) --> iodized table salt for
humans
Ex. Sea otters eat marine algae
I
!
antioxidant (with vitamin E)
!
Se in enzyme glutathione peroxidase which breaks down
peroxide (Vitamin E prevents formation of peroxides)
!
prevents oxidation of unsaturated FAs in cell membranes
!
For:
Toxicity due to substitution of Se for S in S-amino acids
(methionine, cysteine)
!
Can be toxic
Deficiency: nutritional muscular dystrophy (also from vitamin E
deficiency)
Ex. Some plants (golden princess' plume) accumulates toxic
selenium concentrations from the soil
Se
!
Only essential for ruminants, foregut fermenters
(coprophagic/caecotrophic hindgut fermenters)
For: vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) made by bacteria in the gut
Co
!
Essential:
Trace/Microminerals (ug/g DM in body):
May be a problem when animals consume highly purified diet & water in
dust-free environment
Si, Sn, B, Br, Cd, Pb, Li, V, Ni, As
Ultratrace Minerals:
Minerals
Digestion in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores
How do different animals use food?
Fundamentals of Wildlife Nutrition -Part I
Friday,(January(13,(2017
12:23(PM
Undomesticated animal; not living under human control
Untamed
Wild Animals:
Progenitors/ ancestors/ forebears have undergone a domestication process
Kept under direct human control
Domesticated Animals:
Living space
Animal care
Selection of mating partners
Reproduction (supervised or controlled)
An evolutionary process during which these factors are controlled:
As the process continues, the species is genetically altered from its wild ancestral
form
Domestication Process:
Animal that has been familiarized with humans so as to be tractable (can be wild or
domesticated)
Tame Animal:
Any animal that lives in the wild state, but whose ancestors had undergone a
domestication process
Feral Animal:
Undomesticated1.
Not under human control2.
Untame 3.
In this course, wildlife:
Mammals: monotremes, marsupials and eutherians
Nutrition and Feeding:
Process whereby an animal gets and processes portions of its external
environment (food) for the continued functioning of its internal metabolism
The study of the nutrients in food, that each animal must obtain from its
environment, and how these nutrients are used to support maintenance,
growth and reproduction
Prehension -grasping/seizing food items
!
Ingestion -intake of food into the body
!
Mechanical -by chewing or muscular contractions of the gut
(gizzard in birds)
Chemical -in the stomach (proventriculus and gizzard in birds),
the small intestine
Microbial -in herbivores, in the forestomach, caecum, or colon,
by bacteria
Digestion -break down of large complex food compounds (often
insoluble) into smaller, simpler compounds (usually soluble)
!
Absorption -of simple nutrient molecules from the gut into the blood or
lymph
!
Elimination -removal from the body of undigested and unabsorbed
food, and waste products
!
Prehension, ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination
Nutrition
Eating -solid food
!
Drinking -liquid food/water
!
Breathing -oxygen
!
Material taken in by the animal and which contains one or more nutrients:
Food
Organic and inorganic chemical compounds in food, required by the animal to
support maintenance, growth and reproduction
Nutrients
What is food?
Oxygen
1)
Water (free, in food, metabolic)
2)
Carbohydrates (sugars; CHO)
3)
Proteins (amino acids; CHONSP)
4)
Fats/Lipids (fatty acids; CHONP)
5)
Vitamins (CHONS)
6)
Minerals
7)
Groups:
Some contain up to 6 nutrient groups (e.g. milk), some only contain one
(e.g. salt)
!
Foods:
Carbon as C-C or C-H
!
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Includes:
!
Organic Nutrients:
Oxygen
Water
Minerals
Includes:
!
Inorganic Nutrients:
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins
!
Energy is not a nutrient but is derived from nutrients
!
Energy-Yielding Nutrients:
Free (lakes/ rivers)
!
Fresh grass (~77% water)
Non-fat animal tissue (~70% water)
Oats (~11% water)
Air-dried desert seeds (2-3% water)
Water in food
!
Produced when nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) are
broken down by oxidation to produce energy, CO2 and water
Ex. Kangaroo rat obtains all water from food and metabolic
processes
Metabolic water *in most desert species
!
Water:
Nutrient groups
One which cannot be synthesized by the animal itself or by any micro-
organisms present in the GI tract (gut) OR one which cannot be synthesized
fast enough to meet requirements (and therefore must be present in the diet)
Water (1)
!
Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine
!
Histidine (slow)
!
Isoleucine
!
Leucine
!
Lysine
!
Methionine (S) -->
Cysteine -->
**Taurine
*Taurine is essential for
all cats (felids) -synthesis
is slow
*Cystine = 2 Cysteines
!
Threonine
!
Valine
!
Arginine (slow)
!
Tryptophan (destroyed; acid hydrolysis analysis)
!
Essential
:
PHILLMTVAT = fill the
empty vat
Alanine
!
Asparagine
!
Aspartic Acid
!
Cysteine
!
Glutamic Acid
!
Glutamine
!
Glycine
!
Proline
!
Serine
!
Tyrosine
!
Non-essential: for protein synthesis
Amino Acids (10)
!
Gamma-linolenic acid > *arachidonic acid (n6) < >
docosapentaenoic acid (n6)
!
Linoleic Acid (n6)
*Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n3) < > docohexaenoic acid
(n3)
!
Alpha-Linolenic Acid (n3)
For: cell, nuclear, mitochondrial membrane phospholipids
* = EFAs for strict carnivores 'only' (e.g. cats)
Fatty Acids (2)
!
A, D, E, K
Fat-Soluble Vitamins (4)
!
B1 -thiamine
!
B2 -riboflavin
!
Pantothenic acid
!
Niacin/ niacinamide
!
Biotin
!
Pyridoxine
!
Cyanocobalamin
!
Folic acid (folacin)
!
B Vitamins:
Vitamin C: ascorbic acid
Water-Soluble Vitamins (9)
!
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S
Macro Minerals (7) -measured in mg/g body DM
!
Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, I, Se, Fl, Cr
Trace/Micro Minerals (9-14) -measured in ug/g
!
For humans (42-47):
Essential nutrients:
What's in food?
Review:
Starch (glucose polymer)
!
Cellulose (glucose polymer)
!
Hemicellulose (5C/6C sugars)
!
Polysaccharides (insoluble) are made up of monosaccharides (sugars):
Pentoses (5C): ribose
!
Hexoses (6C): glucose, fructose and galactose
!
Monosaccharides (soluble sugars):
Sucrose: glucose + fructose
!
Lactose: glucose + galactose
!
Disaccharides (soluble sugars):
Types:
Glycogen (emergency energy store, liver muscle)
Nucleic acids (RNA/ribose, DNA/deoxyribose)
Animal Carbohydrates:
Starch (main energy storage)
Cellulose, hemicellulose (cell walls)
Nucleic acid
Plant Carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates:
They eat their feces to extract more starch from the leaves
Ex. Northern sportive lemur in Madagascar: caecotrophy releases starches from leaves
Proteins (1 or more polypeptide chains) are made up of amino acids linked by
peptide bonds
Over 200 other aa found in animals and plants are not used for protein
synthesis
For protein synthesis: 20 aa are required
E.g. Glycine: NH2-CH2-COOH *simplest amino acid
General structure: amino group (NH2) + carboxyl group (COOH)
Muscle, ligaments, tendons, bone framework, enzymes, some hormones,
haemoglobin, antibodies, keratin (hair, wool, feathers, horn, nails, claws)
Keratin contains comparatively high amount of cysteine (sulphur-containing
amino acid)
Animal Proteins:
Seeds (protein for germinating seedling)
Enzymes
Plant Proteins:
Proteins:
Ex. Bat feeding on nectar: protein is limiting; is only found in pollen
Fats are solid at room temperature
Oils are liquid at room temperature
Fats & Oils (Lipids)
3 FA + 1 glycerol = triglyceride
2 FA + 1 phosphate + 1 glycerol = phospholipid
Composition:
Methyl group (CH3) + carboxyl group (COOH)
E.g. Acetic Acid: CH3-COOH
E.g. Propionic Acid: CH3-CH2-COOH *found in stomach of ruminants
FA Structure:
CH2OH + FA
CHOH + FA
CH2OH + FA
Glycerol Structure:
E.g. Linoleic Acid 18:2 n-6 (omega 6) *18C with 2 double bonds
No double bonds -saturated FA (animal fats, butter)
1 double bond -monounsaturated (n-9, omega 9), (olive oil, avocado,
peanuts, almonds)
ALA: flaxseed, soybean, phytoplankton
EPA/DHA: fish
N-3 (omega 3): first double bond is at 3rd C from methyl end
!
LA: corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil
N-6 (omega 6): first double bond is at 6th C from methyl end
!
2 or more double bonds -polyunsaturated FA
Naming Fatty Acids:
Melting point increases
Solubility in water decreases
Melting point decreases with increasing double bonds
As the number of C increases….
Fats
Ex. Fat-tailed gerbil stores fat in the base of its tail
Ex. Wild bactrian camel stores fat in the two humps
Ex. Quetzel -eats wild avocados as a large component of its diet
Hydrophobic
only contains ~15% water
compact/concentrated
Adipose (fat) tissue,
!
Animals are mobile -use fat because it contains less water than
carbohydrates
!
Usually TG with long chain (mainly saturated FA)
!
Long-term storage in animals
Must be mobile for dispersal
!
Mainly mono-or poly-unsaturated fatty acids
!
Storage as nuts/seeds in plants
Ex. Northern raccoon
Fats1.
Hydrophilic
Therefore, it is not used as a major energy store (they
would get too fat)
!
1g of glycogen is stored with 3-4g of water
Glycogen
!
Stored in liver and muscle
!
Short-term storage in animals
No need for mobility (perennials)
!
Starch is a common storage (e.g. potatoe plant)
!
Long-term storage in plants
Carbohydrates2.
Energy Storage:
Organic compounds, required in minute amounts = micronutrient
Not used as structural components in animals
Regulate body processes (D)
Act as coenzymes (most B, C)
Antioxidants (C, E)
Cannot be synthesized
Must be obtain from diet (plants or microbes)
Ex. Fenec fox uses beta-carotene instead of Vitamin A
!
Not all vitamins required by all animals; some 'vitamins' are synthesized by
some animals
Vitamins or derivatives:
Retinol, retinal (retinoic acid) -in liver/ fish oil
Beta-carotene (precursor for retinal/retinol in intestinal wall) -in
orange/yellow plant material
Forms:
!
For: cell synthesis, vision (retina: visual pigments, rhodopsin (rods, dim
light), iodopsin (cones, colour and bright light)
!
Storage in live (carotenes in fat)
!
carotenes are not toxic -low efficiency of absorption and
conversion
Vitamin A can be toxic
!
Deficiency: night blindness
!
Not essential for dogs, foxes, mink (use beta-carotene)
Preformed vitamin A (not beta-carotene) is essential for cats, marine
birds and some mammals (higher requirement for cats and polar bears)
!
Vitamin A
D2 (ergocalciferol) -from sunlight (UV) on cut plants (hay,
irradiated yeast)
*D3 (cholecalciferol) -from sunlight (UV) on animal skin, phyto
& zooplankton, marine fish oil
Forms:
!
Synthesis: sunlight (UV) on animal skin on 7-dehydroxycholesterol -->
pre-vitamin D3 (fast) --> cholecalciferol (thermal reaction, slow) -->
liver --> kidney as active vitamin D
!
Less UV in winter and when cloudy
!
No UV through window glass
!
For: Ca & P deposition to and resorption from bone and teeth, egg shell
formation
!
Storage: in liver and fat (minimal in land vertebrates)
!
Can be toxic: Ca build-up in organs and tissues
!
Deficiency: rickets (soft bones in young) and osteomalacia (brittle
bones in adults)
!
insufficient exposure to UV (sunlight)
polar regions
Fossorial (burrowing)
Nocturnal
Indoors
Vitamin D is only required in diet if:
!
Mammals can use D3 or D2
Vitamin D3 is essential for amphibians, birds and reptiles (cannot use
D2)
!
Vitamin D
Alpha-tocopherol
!
Prevents the formation of peroxidases (Se in enzyme glutathione
peroxidase which breaks down peroxide)
Maintains integrity of cellular and subcellular membranes by
preventing lipid peroxidation of unsaturated Fas
For: antioxidant (with Se)
!
Storage: fat
!
Vitamin E and selenium are not always interchangeable
!
Nutritional muscular dystrophy (muscle weakness, paralysis)
In rats and birds --> infertility (M sterility, F foetal development)
Deficiency:
!
Vitamin E
K1 (phylloquinone) -in dark green plants
K2 (menaquinone) -from gut bacteria
K3 (menadione) -synthetic; -->menaquinone by gut bacteria
Forms:
!
For: blood clotting
!
Storage is minimal
!
Delay in blood clot formation
Antibiotics destroy gut bacteria which produce vitamin K
Warfarin was used as poison (they could not form blood
clots) until rats and wild rodents became resistant
!
Warfarin Vitamin K inhibitor
Deficiency:
!
Vitamin K
Fat-Soluble:
B Vitamins: in coenzymes and for energy metabolism
*only need to know names of vitamins
Vitami
n
Coenzymes Deficiency/Notes
Thiami
ne (B1)
TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) Beri-beri: fatigue, polished rice
Ribofla
vin
(B2)
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
FMN (flavin mononucleotide)
Pantoth
enic
Acid
Co-enzyme A
Niacin
(nicotin
ic acid)
Niacina
mide
(nicotin
amide)
NAD, NADP (nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide/phosphate)
Pellagra (dermatitis) -some
synthesis from tryptophan
(inefficient)
Biotin Dermatitis
Other B Vitamins:
Vitami
n
Uses Deficiency/Notes
Pyridox
ine
(B6)
Pyridox
al
Pyridox
amine
Cofactor, amino acid metabolism -high requirement in carnivores
Cyanoc
obalami
n (B12)
Co-enzyme, rbc synthesis Deficiency: pernivious
anaemia
Storage: in liver
-only made by microbes (not
plants) therefore, a problem for
vegans
Folic
Acid
(Folaci
n)
Co-enzyme, RNA/DNA synthesis Deficiency: anaemia
-cancer drugs inhibit use
Antioxidant
Formation of collagen & elastin (wound repair)
As a coenzyme
Uses:
!
Deficiency: scurvy, hair loss & dermatitis
!
Not essential for reptiles, amphibians, most birds, most mammals
(synthesized in kidney and/or liver)
Essential for invertebrates, fish, primates, bats, whales, some birds,
guinea pigs
!
Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid
Water-Soluble:
Grouped with water soluble vitamins but required in larger amounts that true
vitamins and can be synthesized by animals
structure of cellular membranes
export of lipids from liver
Can be made from methionine (too slow in growing animals)
For:
!
Requirement: >1% DM diet (high for a vitamin)
!
Needed in diet for rats and mice (in labs)
!
Deficiency: fatty liver
!
Choline:
Structure of cell membranes
For:
!
Can be synthesized but often too slowly
!
Needed in diet for rodents
!
Deficiency: fatty liver (also for gerbils)
!
Inositol:
Water-Soluble "Vitamins"
Vitamins
Inorganic
Cannot be 'made' by any animal or plant (plants obtain minerals from soil)
Must be obtained from diet
Characteristics:
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S (7)
Some used as structural components (Ca, P)
major mineral constituent of animal body (bones, teeth, antlers,
egg shells, milk)
Ca:
!
second major mineral (bones, teeth antlers, milk, cell membranes,
energy metabolism in ATP)
2 high energy P bonds --> AMP adenosine monophosphate
P:
!
Storage: bone, teeth
Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia (also vitamin D deficiency)
Osteophagia -bone chewing
Ex. Sulawesi Babirusa
2 Ca: 1 P
Ca & P:
!
For: bones, teeth, enzymes, Mg blood level controls nerve and
muscle function
Storage: bones, teeth
Mg:
!
For: main cation in extracellular solution, maintains fluid volume,
acid-base balance, tissue pH
'specific hunger' -deficiency and potential source recognized
(water also)
Na:
!
For: main anioin in body fluids, gastric acidity (HCl) and
digestion
Ex. Viscacha rat removes salt crystal before eating from the salt
bush
Cl:
!
For: main intracellular cation, maintains fluid volume, acid-base
balance, tissue pH
Ex. Wild-living sika deer in Asia contain insufficient potassium
K:
!
For: insulin, S-containing amino acids (methionine, cysteine)
S:
!
Essential:
Macrominerals (mg/g DM in body):
Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, I, Se, Fl, Cr (9)
Co -for ruminants (due to bacteria)
Major micromineral in animal body
Camels are highly adapted with round/oval blood cells that
are long and thin to flow more easily through the blood
vessels because they have thicker blood (less water in
desert environments)
!
For: haemoglobin (O2 in rbc), myoglobin (emergency O2 in
muscles), some enzymes
Storage: in liver
Deficiency: anaemia
Geophagia -soil eating *to make up for iron deficiency
Fe:
!
For: haemoglobin, melanin formation
Storage: in liver
Can be toxic
Deficiency: anaemia, faded coat
Conditioned deficiency -if adequate Cu, excess Mo (makes
copper less effective)
Cu
!
For: synthesis of DNA & RNA, feather pigmentation,
component/co-factor in many enzymes
Storage: bone, liver
Can be toxic
Deficiency -if adequate Zn but excess Ca (makes zinc less
effective)
Zn
!
For: cartilaginous matrix of bones, energy metabolism (cofactor
in oxidative phosphorylation)
Storage: bone, liver
Mn
!
In: sea water (marine fish and plants)
For: thyroid hormones
Deficiency: goiter (thyroid enlargement) --> iodized table salt for
humans
Ex. Sea otters eat marine algae
I
!
antioxidant (with vitamin E)
!
Se in enzyme glutathione peroxidase which breaks down
peroxide (Vitamin E prevents formation of peroxides)
!
prevents oxidation of unsaturated FAs in cell membranes
!
For:
Toxicity due to substitution of Se for S in S-amino acids
(methionine, cysteine)
!
Can be toxic
Deficiency: nutritional muscular dystrophy (also from vitamin E
deficiency)
Ex. Some plants (golden princess' plume) accumulates toxic
selenium concentrations from the soil
Se
!
Only essential for ruminants, foregut fermenters
(coprophagic/caecotrophic hindgut fermenters)
For: vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) made by bacteria in the gut
Co
!
Essential:
Trace/Microminerals (ug/g DM in body):
May be a problem when animals consume highly purified diet & water in
dust-free environment
Si, Sn, B, Br, Cd, Pb, Li, V, Ni, As
Ultratrace Minerals:
Minerals
Digestion in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores
How do different animals use food?
Fundamentals of Wildlife Nutrition -Part I
Friday,(January(13,(2017 12:23(PM
Undomesticated animal; not living under human control
Untamed
Wild Animals:
Progenitors/ ancestors/ forebears have undergone a domestication process
Kept under direct human control
Domesticated Animals:
Living space
Animal care
Selection of mating partners
Reproduction (supervised or controlled)
An evolutionary process during which these factors are controlled:
As the process continues, the species is genetically altered from its wild ancestral
form
Domestication Process:
Animal that has been familiarized with humans so as to be tractable (can be wild or
domesticated)
Tame Animal:
Any animal that lives in the wild state, but whose ancestors had undergone a
domestication process
Feral Animal:
Undomesticated1.
Not under human control2.
Untame 3.
In this course, wildlife:
Mammals: monotremes, marsupials and eutherians
Nutrition and Feeding:
Process whereby an animal gets and processes portions of its external
environment (food) for the continued functioning of its internal metabolism
The study of the nutrients in food, that each animal must obtain from its
environment, and how these nutrients are used to support maintenance,
growth and reproduction
Prehension -grasping/seizing food items
!
Ingestion -intake of food into the body
!
Mechanical -by chewing or muscular contractions of the gut
(gizzard in birds)
Chemical -in the stomach (proventriculus and gizzard in birds),
the small intestine
Microbial -in herbivores, in the forestomach, caecum, or colon,
by bacteria
Digestion -break down of large complex food compounds (often
insoluble) into smaller, simpler compounds (usually soluble)
!
Absorption -of simple nutrient molecules from the gut into the blood or
lymph
!
Elimination -removal from the body of undigested and unabsorbed
food, and waste products
!
Prehension, ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination
Nutrition
Eating -solid food
!
Drinking -liquid food/water
!
Breathing -oxygen
!
Material taken in by the animal and which contains one or more nutrients:
Food
Organic and inorganic chemical compounds in food, required by the animal to
support maintenance, growth and reproduction
Nutrients
What is food?
Oxygen 1)
Water (free, in food, metabolic) 2)
Carbohydrates (sugars; CHO)3)
Proteins (amino acids; CHONSP)4)
Fats/Lipids (fatty acids; CHONP)5)
Vitamins (CHONS)6)
Minerals7)
Groups:
Some contain up to 6 nutrient groups (e.g. milk), some only contain one
(e.g. salt)
!
Foods:
Carbon as C-C or C-H
!
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Includes:
!
Organic Nutrients:
Oxygen
Water
Minerals
Includes:
!
Inorganic Nutrients:
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins
!
Energy is not a nutrient but is derived from nutrients
!
Energy-Yielding Nutrients:
Free (lakes/ rivers)
!
Fresh grass (~77% water)
Non-fat animal tissue (~70% water)
Oats (~11% water)
Air-dried desert seeds (2-3% water)
Water in food
!
Produced when nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) are
broken down by oxidation to produce energy, CO2 and water
Ex. Kangaroo rat obtains all water from food and metabolic
processes
Metabolic water *in most desert species
!
Water:
Nutrient groups
One which cannot be synthesized by the animal itself or by any micro-
organisms present in the GI tract (gut) OR one which cannot be synthesized
fast enough to meet requirements (and therefore must be present in the diet)
Water (1)
!
Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine
!
Histidine (slow)
!
Isoleucine
!
Leucine
!
Lysine
!
Methionine (S) -->
Cysteine -->
**Taurine
*Taurine is essential for
all cats (felids) -synthesis
is slow
*Cystine = 2 Cysteines
!
Threonine
!
Valine
!
Arginine (slow)
!
Tryptophan (destroyed; acid hydrolysis analysis)
!
Essential
:
PHILLMTVAT = fill the
empty vat
Alanine
!
Asparagine
!
Aspartic Acid
!
Cysteine
!
Glutamic Acid
!
Glutamine
!
Glycine
!
Proline
!
Serine
!
Tyrosine
!
Non-essential: for protein synthesis
Amino Acids (10)
!
Gamma-linolenic acid > *arachidonic acid (n6) < >
docosapentaenoic acid (n6)
!
Linoleic Acid (n6)
*Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n3) < > docohexaenoic acid
(n3)
!
Alpha-Linolenic Acid (n3)
For: cell, nuclear, mitochondrial membrane phospholipids
* = EFAs for strict carnivores 'only' (e.g. cats)
Fatty Acids (2)
!
A, D, E, K
Fat-Soluble Vitamins (4)
!
B1 -thiamine
!
B2 -riboflavin
!
Pantothenic acid
!
Niacin/ niacinamide
!
Biotin
!
Pyridoxine
!
Cyanocobalamin
!
Folic acid (folacin)
!
B Vitamins:
Vitamin C: ascorbic acid
Water-Soluble Vitamins (9)
!
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S
Macro Minerals (7) -measured in mg/g body DM
!
Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, I, Se, Fl, Cr
Trace/Micro Minerals (9-14) -measured in ug/g
!
For humans (42-47):
Essential nutrients:
What's in food?
Review:
Starch (glucose polymer)
!
Cellulose (glucose polymer)
!
Hemicellulose (5C/6C sugars)
!
Polysaccharides (insoluble) are made up of monosaccharides (sugars):
Pentoses (5C): ribose
!
Hexoses (6C): glucose, fructose and galactose
!
Monosaccharides (soluble sugars):
Sucrose: glucose + fructose
!
Lactose: glucose + galactose
!
Disaccharides (soluble sugars):
Types:
Glycogen (emergency energy store, liver muscle)
Nucleic acids (RNA/ribose, DNA/deoxyribose)
Animal Carbohydrates:
Starch (main energy storage)
Cellulose, hemicellulose (cell walls)
Nucleic acid
Plant Carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates:
They eat their feces to extract more starch from the leaves
Ex. Northern sportive lemur in Madagascar: caecotrophy releases starches from leaves
Proteins (1 or more polypeptide chains) are made up of amino acids linked by
peptide bonds
Over 200 other aa found in animals and plants are not used for protein
synthesis
For protein synthesis: 20 aa are required
E.g. Glycine: NH2-CH2-COOH *simplest amino acid
General structure: amino group (NH2) + carboxyl group (COOH)
Muscle, ligaments, tendons, bone framework, enzymes, some hormones,
haemoglobin, antibodies, keratin (hair, wool, feathers, horn, nails, claws)
Keratin contains comparatively high amount of cysteine (sulphur-containing
amino acid)
Animal Proteins:
Seeds (protein for germinating seedling)
Enzymes
Plant Proteins:
Proteins:
Ex. Bat feeding on nectar: protein is limiting; is only found in pollen
Fats are solid at room temperature
Oils are liquid at room temperature
Fats & Oils (Lipids)
3 FA + 1 glycerol = triglyceride
2 FA + 1 phosphate + 1 glycerol = phospholipid
Composition:
Methyl group (CH3) + carboxyl group (COOH)
E.g. Acetic Acid: CH3-COOH
E.g. Propionic Acid: CH3-CH2-COOH *found in stomach of ruminants
FA Structure:
CH2OH + FA
CHOH + FA
CH2OH + FA
Glycerol Structure:
E.g. Linoleic Acid 18:2 n-6 (omega 6) *18C with 2 double bonds
No double bonds -saturated FA (animal fats, butter)
1 double bond -monounsaturated (n-9, omega 9), (olive oil, avocado,
peanuts, almonds)
ALA: flaxseed, soybean, phytoplankton
EPA/DHA: fish
N-3 (omega 3): first double bond is at 3rd C from methyl end
!
LA: corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil
N-6 (omega 6): first double bond is at 6th C from methyl end
!
2 or more double bonds -polyunsaturated FA
Naming Fatty Acids:
Melting point increases
Solubility in water decreases
Melting point decreases with increasing double bonds
As the number of C increases….
Fats
Ex. Fat-tailed gerbil stores fat in the base of its tail
Ex. Wild bactrian camel stores fat in the two humps
Ex. Quetzel -eats wild avocados as a large component of its diet
Hydrophobic
only contains ~15% water
compact/concentrated
Adipose (fat) tissue,
!
Animals are mobile -use fat because it contains less water than
carbohydrates
!
Usually TG with long chain (mainly saturated FA)
!
Long-term storage in animals
Must be mobile for dispersal
!
Mainly mono-or poly-unsaturated fatty acids
!
Storage as nuts/seeds in plants
Ex. Northern raccoon
Fats1.
Hydrophilic
Therefore, it is not used as a major energy store (they
would get too fat)
!
1g of glycogen is stored with 3-4g of water
Glycogen
!
Stored in liver and muscle
!
Short-term storage in animals
No need for mobility (perennials)
!
Starch is a common storage (e.g. potatoe plant)
!
Long-term storage in plants
Carbohydrates2.
Energy Storage:
Organic compounds, required in minute amounts = micronutrient
Not used as structural components in animals
Regulate body processes (D)
Act as coenzymes (most B, C)
Antioxidants (C, E)
Cannot be synthesized
Must be obtain from diet (plants or microbes)
Ex. Fenec fox uses beta-carotene instead of Vitamin A
!
Not all vitamins required by all animals; some 'vitamins' are synthesized by
some animals
Vitamins or derivatives:
Retinol, retinal (retinoic acid) -in liver/ fish oil
Beta-carotene (precursor for retinal/retinol in intestinal wall) -in
orange/yellow plant material
Forms:
!
For: cell synthesis, vision (retina: visual pigments, rhodopsin (rods, dim
light), iodopsin (cones, colour and bright light)
!
Storage in live (carotenes in fat)
!
carotenes are not toxic -low efficiency of absorption and
conversion
Vitamin A can be toxic
!
Deficiency: night blindness
!
Not essential for dogs, foxes, mink (use beta-carotene)
Preformed vitamin A (not beta-carotene) is essential for cats, marine
birds and some mammals (higher requirement for cats and polar bears)
!
Vitamin A
D2 (ergocalciferol) -from sunlight (UV) on cut plants (hay,
irradiated yeast)
*D3 (cholecalciferol) -from sunlight (UV) on animal skin, phyto
& zooplankton, marine fish oil
Forms:
!
Synthesis: sunlight (UV) on animal skin on 7-dehydroxycholesterol -->
pre-vitamin D3 (fast) --> cholecalciferol (thermal reaction, slow) -->
liver --> kidney as active vitamin D
!
Less UV in winter and when cloudy
!
No UV through window glass
!
For: Ca & P deposition to and resorption from bone and teeth, egg shell
formation
!
Storage: in liver and fat (minimal in land vertebrates)
!
Can be toxic: Ca build-up in organs and tissues
!
Deficiency: rickets (soft bones in young) and osteomalacia (brittle
bones in adults)
!
insufficient exposure to UV (sunlight)
polar regions
Fossorial (burrowing)
Nocturnal
Indoors
Vitamin D is only required in diet if:
!
Mammals can use D3 or D2
Vitamin D3 is essential for amphibians, birds and reptiles (cannot use
D2)
!
Vitamin D
Alpha-tocopherol
!
Prevents the formation of peroxidases (Se in enzyme glutathione
peroxidase which breaks down peroxide)
Maintains integrity of cellular and subcellular membranes by
preventing lipid peroxidation of unsaturated Fas
For: antioxidant (with Se)
!
Storage: fat
!
Vitamin E and selenium are not always interchangeable
!
Nutritional muscular dystrophy (muscle weakness, paralysis)
In rats and birds --> infertility (M sterility, F foetal development)
Deficiency:
!
Vitamin E
K1 (phylloquinone) -in dark green plants
K2 (menaquinone) -from gut bacteria
K3 (menadione) -synthetic; -->menaquinone by gut bacteria
Forms:
!
For: blood clotting
!
Storage is minimal
!
Delay in blood clot formation
Antibiotics destroy gut bacteria which produce vitamin K
Warfarin was used as poison (they could not form blood
clots) until rats and wild rodents became resistant
!
Warfarin Vitamin K inhibitor
Deficiency:
!
Vitamin K
Fat-Soluble:
B Vitamins: in coenzymes and for energy metabolism
*only need to know names of vitamins
Vitami
n
Coenzymes Deficiency/Notes
Thiami
ne (B1)
TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) Beri-beri: fatigue, polished rice
Ribofla
vin
(B2)
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
FMN (flavin mononucleotide)
Pantoth
enic
Acid
Co-enzyme A
Niacin
(nicotin
ic acid)
Niacina
mide
(nicotin
amide)
NAD, NADP (nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide/phosphate)
Pellagra (dermatitis) -some
synthesis from tryptophan
(inefficient)
Biotin Dermatitis
Other B Vitamins:
Vitami
n
Uses Deficiency/Notes
Pyridox
ine
(B6)
Pyridox
al
Pyridox
amine
Cofactor, amino acid metabolism -high requirement in carnivores
Cyanoc
obalami
n (B12)
Co-enzyme, rbc synthesis Deficiency: pernivious
anaemia
Storage: in liver
-only made by microbes (not
plants) therefore, a problem for
vegans
Folic
Acid
(Folaci
n)
Co-enzyme, RNA/DNA synthesis Deficiency: anaemia
-cancer drugs inhibit use
Antioxidant
Formation of collagen & elastin (wound repair)
As a coenzyme
Uses:
!
Deficiency: scurvy, hair loss & dermatitis
!
Not essential for reptiles, amphibians, most birds, most mammals
(synthesized in kidney and/or liver)
Essential for invertebrates, fish, primates, bats, whales, some birds,
guinea pigs
!
Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid
Water-Soluble:
Grouped with water soluble vitamins but required in larger amounts that true
vitamins and can be synthesized by animals
structure of cellular membranes
export of lipids from liver
Can be made from methionine (too slow in growing animals)
For:
!
Requirement: >1% DM diet (high for a vitamin)
!
Needed in diet for rats and mice (in labs)
!
Deficiency: fatty liver
!
Choline:
Structure of cell membranes
For:
!
Can be synthesized but often too slowly
!
Needed in diet for rodents
!
Deficiency: fatty liver (also for gerbils)
!
Inositol:
Water-Soluble "Vitamins"
Vitamins
Inorganic
Cannot be 'made' by any animal or plant (plants obtain minerals from soil)
Must be obtained from diet
Characteristics:
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S (7)
Some used as structural components (Ca, P)
major mineral constituent of animal body (bones, teeth, antlers,
egg shells, milk)
Ca:
!
second major mineral (bones, teeth antlers, milk, cell membranes,
energy metabolism in ATP)
2 high energy P bonds --> AMP adenosine monophosphate
P:
!
Storage: bone, teeth
Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia (also vitamin D deficiency)
Osteophagia -bone chewing
Ex. Sulawesi Babirusa
2 Ca: 1 P
Ca & P:
!
For: bones, teeth, enzymes, Mg blood level controls nerve and
muscle function
Storage: bones, teeth
Mg:
!
For: main cation in extracellular solution, maintains fluid volume,
acid-base balance, tissue pH
'specific hunger' -deficiency and potential source recognized
(water also)
Na:
!
For: main anioin in body fluids, gastric acidity (HCl) and
digestion
Ex. Viscacha rat removes salt crystal before eating from the salt
bush
Cl:
!
For: main intracellular cation, maintains fluid volume, acid-base
balance, tissue pH
Ex. Wild-living sika deer in Asia contain insufficient potassium
K:
!
For: insulin, S-containing amino acids (methionine, cysteine)
S:
!
Essential:
Macrominerals (mg/g DM in body):
Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, I, Se, Fl, Cr (9)
Co -for ruminants (due to bacteria)
Major micromineral in animal body
Camels are highly adapted with round/oval blood cells that
are long and thin to flow more easily through the blood
vessels because they have thicker blood (less water in
desert environments)
!
For: haemoglobin (O2 in rbc), myoglobin (emergency O2 in
muscles), some enzymes
Storage: in liver
Deficiency: anaemia
Geophagia -soil eating *to make up for iron deficiency
Fe:
!
For: haemoglobin, melanin formation
Storage: in liver
Can be toxic
Deficiency: anaemia, faded coat
Conditioned deficiency -if adequate Cu, excess Mo (makes
copper less effective)
Cu
!
For: synthesis of DNA & RNA, feather pigmentation,
component/co-factor in many enzymes
Storage: bone, liver
Can be toxic
Deficiency -if adequate Zn but excess Ca (makes zinc less
effective)
Zn
!
For: cartilaginous matrix of bones, ener