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Lecture 6

ANSC 3180 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Terrestrial Locomotion, Brachiation, ThermoregulationPremium

6 pages36 viewsWinter 2017

Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 3180
Professor
Esther Finegan
Lecture
6

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
How much food do they need to get this energy?
How much energy do animals need to survive, grow and reproduce?
What foods do animals eat? And when?
What nutrients do foods contain? And what toxins/ anti-nutrients?
What use do animals make of their food? And how effective is the digestion?
Questions:
1000 cal = 1 kcal
1 Joule = 0.239 cals
!
1 calorie = 4.182 Joules
1 calorie (cal) -heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water from
14.5C to 15.5C
1000 J = 1 kJ
1000 kJ = 1MJ
1 Joule (J) -energy expended when 1 kg is moved 1m by a force of 1N
1g carbohydrates contains ~ 4kcal (GE)
1g protein contains ~5-5.5 kcal (GE=DE)
1g fat contains ~9 kcal (GE=DE=ME)
31g carbs: 31 x 4 = 124 124 kcal
12g fat: 12 x 9 = 108 108 kcal
2g protein: 2 x 5 = 10 10 kcal
TOTAL: 242 kcal
Ex. Mars Bar:
Energy: Review
The essential continuity between an animal and its environment is revealed most
obviously in energy exchanges and transformations' (King 1974)
Kidney filtration
!
Respiration
!
Circulation
!
Nerve and liver function
!
Cell maintenance (protein and lipid turnover, and ion
transport)
!
Basal metabolism (measured as BMR)
Maintenance
!
Standing, terrestrial locomotion, burrowing, flying, swimming,
brachiation, feeding (digestion), fighting, playing
Activity
!
Thermoregulation
!
Daily energy expenditure:
Protein & fat deposition, bones
!
Pelage, plumage
!
antlers
!
Growth
Birds: egg production, incubation
!
Mammals: gestation, lactation
!
Reproduction
Energy is required for…
Energy Requirements:
At rest (not sleeping)1)
Shrews: <2hrs after eating
Small animals and birds: 3-6 hrs
Large ruminants: 40+ hrs
Hummingbirds: enter short-term torpor
Some rodents & small birds (white-crowned sparrow): become
hyperactive
In a post-absorptive state (no metabolism)2)
In a thermoneutral environment (TNZ< TCZ)3)
Without physical or psychological stress4)
The metabolic rate of a homeothermic animal:
Sleeping
Starvation
Dehydration
Hibernation, torpor, hypothermia
BMR is not the lowest metabolic rate, it is lower when/in:
Y = 70 X0.75 where Y=BMR (kcal/day) and X=body weight (kg)
Smaller animals have higher energy requirement for basal metabolism per
unit of body weight, than a larger animal
Early estimate (Kleiber 1947): Mammals
This is because the smaller animal has a higher energy requirement for
basal metabolism per unit of body weight, than a larger animal (more
kcal/kg)
A 100 kg animal does not need twice as much energy as a 50kg animal
Mammals: Y = 57.2 X0.716
Marsupials: Y = 46.6 X0.737
Based on food habit groupings
A more recent estimate (McNab 1988)
Vertebrate eaters: Y = 91.8 X0.813 , Weight range: 0.077-175.0 kg
Flying: Y = 47.3 X0.797 , Weight range: 0.009-0.056 kg
Small: Y = 44.1 X0.597 , Weight range: 0.003-0.123 kg
Burrowing: Y = 31.7 X0.738 , Weight range: 0.4-48 kg
Large: Y = 43.5 X0.719 , Weight range: 0.206-7.7 kg
Large anteaters: Y = 19.7 X0.753 , Weight range: 1.2-30.6 kg
Invertebrate eaters:
Flying:
Arboreal:
Terrestrial:
Frugivores:
Nectarivores:
Seed & nut-eaters:
Desert seed-eaters:
Burrowing seed-eaters:
Small:
Burrowing:
Burrowing-root:
Large:
Grazers:
Arboreal:
Terrestrial:
Small:
Folivores:
BMR of mammals grouped by food habits (kcal/d, kg)
Pronghorn, harbor/spotted seal, wood rat
Rapidly growing animals have 2x adult BMR
Red squirrel
Sleeping animals have a metabolic rate 7-28% lower than waking BMR
Bighorn sheep, reindeer, moose
BMR may be lower in the winter --> conservation
Desert cottontail, peccary, prairie vole (prone to predation)
BMR may be higher in winter --> need food to increase expenditure
Bears: Y = 15.2 X0.99
Minimum 'metabolic rate' is lower in animals in torpor
Y = 3.2 X1.03
Minimum 'metabolic rate' is lower in hibernating animals
BMR may not remain constant:
Basal Metabolic Rate
Includes: larks, swallows, wagtails, pipits, shrikes, waxwings,
dippers, wrens, mockingbirds, thrushes, warblers, nuthatches,
treecreepers, buntings, vireos, orioles, blackbirds, finches, sparrows,
starlings, crows, jays
Y = 114.7 X0.73 (higher than non-passerine) *have a higher internal
temp
Passerine birds (perching/songbirds)
Includes: penguins, ostriches, emus, kiwis, loons, grebes, petrels,
albatrosses, frigatebirds, pelicans, boobies, cormorants, herons,
ibises, spoonbills, storks, flamingos, swans, geese, ducks, vultures,
ospreys, hawks, eagles, flacons, grouse, pheasants, turkeys, hoatzins,
cranes, limpkins, rails, oystercatches, plovers, sandpipers, avocets,
gulls, terns, skimmers, pigeons, parrots, cuckoos, owls, nightjars,
swifts, kingfishers, hummingbirds, toucans, woodpeckers
Y = 73.6 X0.73 (gives equivalent values to the general mammal
equation)
Non-Passerine
BMR correlates with food habits (McNab 1988)
BMR for many tropical and nocturnal birds is lower than for
temperature and diurnal birds
BMR for many marine birds is higher than for terrestrial species
Usually BMR for birds is greater than BMR for mammals of the
same weight
Very small birds (3.3g) -35% higher
Large birds (17.6 kg) -24% higher
Higher BMR in birds may be associated with slightly higher body
temperatures
For individual species, BMR is 30-70% higher than the general mammal
equation
BMRs during the non-active part of the say is ~24% lower than
during the active part of the say (pigeon, little penguin)
BMR for many passerines is higher in the winter than the summer
Either does not change seasonally or is higher in the summer
than the winter (ptarmigan)
BMR for non-passerines:
Waterfowl: 65-90% of adult BMR
Gallinaceous birds : 42-72% of adult BMR (chickens, turkeys,
grouse, pheasants, peacocks)
Gulls, terns: BMR at hatching is the same as adult BMR
BMR in newly hatched birds is usually low
BMR rises above normal adult level during rapid growth
Avian BMR may not remain constant:
BMR in Birds:
BMR conversion from O2 consumption (mL) --> kcal/day
See BMR Conversion ThompsonNicoll 1986
O2 consumption (mL/hr) x 0.0048 (kcal/mL O2 x 24hr)
**Project
Tend to have a lower energy requirement
*leaves are a limited food source due to diet
specificity (selective feeding) and seasonal
availability
Controlled by thyroid (smaller than normal)
Influenced by hours of daylight
*lower in Winter
They do not have high energy requirements
They lower their temperature to save energy
Bears go into a lethargic state instead of hibernation
Energy: Requirements & Maintenance
Friday,*February*3,*2017
12:22*PM
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How much food do they need to get this energy?
How much energy do animals need to survive, grow and reproduce?
What foods do animals eat? And when?
What nutrients do foods contain? And what toxins/ anti-nutrients?
What use do animals make of their food? And how effective is the digestion?
Questions:
1000 cal = 1 kcal
1000 kcal = 1 Mcal
1 Joule = 0.239 cals
!
1 calorie = 4.182 Joules
1 calorie (cal) -heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water from
14.5C to 15.5C
1000 J = 1 kJ
1000 kJ = 1MJ
1 Joule (J) -energy expended when 1 kg is moved 1m by a force of 1N
1g carbohydrates contains ~ 4kcal (GE)
1g protein contains ~5-5.5 kcal (GE=DE)
1g fat contains ~9 kcal (GE=DE=ME)
31g carbs: 31 x 4 = 124 124 kcal
12g fat: 12 x 9 = 108 108 kcal
2g protein: 2 x 5 = 10 10 kcal
TOTAL: 242 kcal
Ex. Mars Bar:
Energy: Review
The essential continuity between an animal and its environment is revealed most
obviously in energy exchanges and transformations' (King 1974)
Kidney filtration
!
Respiration
!
Circulation
!
Nerve and liver function
!
Cell maintenance (protein and lipid turnover, and ion
transport)
!
Basal metabolism (measured as BMR)
Maintenance
!
Standing, terrestrial locomotion, burrowing, flying, swimming,
brachiation, feeding (digestion), fighting, playing
Activity
!
Thermoregulation
!
Daily energy expenditure:
Protein & fat deposition, bones
!
Pelage, plumage
!
antlers
!
Growth
Birds: egg production, incubation
!
Mammals: gestation, lactation
!
Reproduction
Energy is required for…
Energy Requirements:
At rest (not sleeping)
1)
Shrews: <2hrs after eating
Small animals and birds: 3-6 hrs
Large ruminants: 40+ hrs
Hummingbirds: enter short-term torpor
Some rodents & small birds (white-crowned sparrow): become
hyperactive
In a post-absorptive state (no metabolism)
2)
In a thermoneutral environment (TNZ< TCZ)
3)
Without physical or psychological stress
4)
The metabolic rate of a homeothermic animal:
Sleeping
Starvation
Dehydration
Hibernation, torpor, hypothermia
BMR is not the lowest metabolic rate, it is lower when/in:
Y = 70 X0.75 where Y=BMR (kcal/day) and X=body weight (kg)
Smaller animals have higher energy requirement for basal metabolism per
unit of body weight, than a larger animal
Early estimate (Kleiber 1947): Mammals
This is because the smaller animal has a higher energy requirement for
basal metabolism per unit of body weight, than a larger animal (more
kcal/kg)
A 100 kg animal does not need twice as much energy as a 50kg animal
Mammals: Y = 57.2 X0.716
Marsupials: Y = 46.6 X0.737
Based on food habit groupings
A more recent estimate (McNab 1988)
Vertebrate eaters: Y = 91.8 X0.813 , Weight range: 0.077-175.0 kg
Flying: Y = 47.3 X0.797 , Weight range: 0.009-0.056 kg
Small: Y = 44.1 X0.597 , Weight range: 0.003-0.123 kg
Burrowing: Y = 31.7 X0.738 , Weight range: 0.4-48 kg
Large: Y = 43.5 X0.719 , Weight range: 0.206-7.7 kg
Large anteaters: Y = 19.7 X0.753 , Weight range: 1.2-30.6 kg
Invertebrate eaters:
Flying:
Arboreal:
Terrestrial:
Frugivores:
Nectarivores:
Seed & nut-eaters:
Desert seed-eaters:
Burrowing seed-eaters:
Small:
Burrowing:
Burrowing-root:
Large:
Grazers:
Arboreal:
Terrestrial:
Small:
Folivores:
BMR of mammals grouped by food habits (kcal/d, kg)
Pronghorn, harbor/spotted seal, wood rat
Rapidly growing animals have 2x adult BMR
Red squirrel
Sleeping animals have a metabolic rate 7-28% lower than waking BMR
Bighorn sheep, reindeer, moose
BMR may be lower in the winter --> conservation
Desert cottontail, peccary, prairie vole (prone to predation)
BMR may be higher in winter --> need food to increase expenditure
Bears: Y = 15.2 X0.99
Minimum 'metabolic rate' is lower in animals in torpor
Y = 3.2 X1.03
Minimum 'metabolic rate' is lower in hibernating animals
BMR may not remain constant:
Basal Metabolic Rate
Includes: larks, swallows, wagtails, pipits, shrikes, waxwings,
dippers, wrens, mockingbirds, thrushes, warblers, nuthatches,
treecreepers, buntings, vireos, orioles, blackbirds, finches, sparrows,
starlings, crows, jays
Y = 114.7 X0.73 (higher than non-passerine) *have a higher internal
temp
Passerine birds (perching/songbirds)
Includes: penguins, ostriches, emus, kiwis, loons, grebes, petrels,
albatrosses, frigatebirds, pelicans, boobies, cormorants, herons,
ibises, spoonbills, storks, flamingos, swans, geese, ducks, vultures,
ospreys, hawks, eagles, flacons, grouse, pheasants, turkeys, hoatzins,
cranes, limpkins, rails, oystercatches, plovers, sandpipers, avocets,
gulls, terns, skimmers, pigeons, parrots, cuckoos, owls, nightjars,
swifts, kingfishers, hummingbirds, toucans, woodpeckers
Y = 73.6 X0.73 (gives equivalent values to the general mammal
equation)
Non-Passerine
BMR correlates with food habits (McNab 1988)
BMR for many tropical and nocturnal birds is lower than for
temperature and diurnal birds
BMR for many marine birds is higher than for terrestrial species
Usually BMR for birds is greater than BMR for mammals of the
same weight
Very small birds (3.3g) -35% higher
Large birds (17.6 kg) -24% higher
Higher BMR in birds may be associated with slightly higher body
temperatures
For individual species, BMR is 30-70% higher than the general mammal
equation
BMRs during the non-active part of the say is ~24% lower than
during the active part of the say (pigeon, little penguin)
BMR for many passerines is higher in the winter than the summer
Either does not change seasonally or is higher in the summer
than the winter (ptarmigan)
BMR for non-passerines:
Waterfowl: 65-90% of adult BMR
Gallinaceous birds : 42-72% of adult BMR (chickens, turkeys,
grouse, pheasants, peacocks)
Gulls, terns: BMR at hatching is the same as adult BMR
BMR in newly hatched birds is usually low
BMR rises above normal adult level during rapid growth
Avian BMR may not remain constant:
BMR in Birds:
BMR conversion from O2 consumption (mL) --> kcal/day
See BMR Conversion ThompsonNicoll 1986
O2 consumption (mL/hr) x 0.0048 (kcal/mL O2 x 24hr)
**Project
Tend to have a lower energy requirement
*leaves are a limited food source due to diet
specificity (selective feeding) and seasonal
availability
Controlled by thyroid (smaller than normal)
Influenced by hours of daylight
*lower in Winter
They do not have high energy requirements
They lower their temperature to save energy
Bears go into a lethargic state instead of hibernation
Energy: Requirements & Maintenance
Friday,*February*3,*2017 12:22*PM
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