ANTH 1120 2014 – Week 12
Brief Lecture Outline
Short discussion of exam
- short answer between 1/2 and 1/3 in point form,
- essay format about 1/4 of exam. Pulling things together making an arguments using examples
critical thinking, Essay format (full sentences, intro, conclusion, paragraphs, written in an essay
booklet) pick one of 2 or 3 options.
- December 3 @8:30-10:30
- MACN 105
- Can't cover everything we looked at in class tonight
- Can remind you of some broad themes
1) Humans and our place in the world ▯ who are we and how did we become who we are today?
- Basic evolutionary mechanisms: understanding how evolution works
- Hominin evolution (specie and timelines)
- Evolutionary trends re: morphology, behaviour, culture(early signs of art and what art means.
changes in art overtime), geographic distribution (what was moving around and what was more
- know how a species changes overtime and give specific examples; movement migration, changes
in technology- tools and what species they were associated with, evidence of healing after tool
loss or bone breaks and how it shows the interactions between individuals, nature and
complexity of the brain. how homo fluroriensis, tool use behaviour and changes in culture, cave
paintings and carvings
- The models for the emergence of anatomically modern humans:
• Recent Out-of-Africa,
• **Assimilation,; based on the genetic evidence this make more sense
• Multiregional Evolution: argue thatAMH evolved in several areas but maintained their
reproductive capacity by moving around and breeding with one another.
• To answer these questions; name and describe these things and take a position on the topic.
- How we fit into current primate lineages and what we know about nonhuman primates and their
2) The adaptive significance of human diversity
- The plasticity of humanity (biologically, culturally) has allowed us to spread around the world
and our success as a species
- Culture allowing us to transcend biology limits ▯ but biological diversity still exists and some
of it is adaptively significant
- Variation exists in ways that is both adaptive an non adaptive
- What are some examples of human diversity that are related to adaptations to stressors?
• Darker skin closer to the equator and the advantages of that • Ppl in hot environments are tall and cold pops are stockier which has to do with heat
• Mountainous environments, how people how adapted to that, genetic and adaptive
• Milk consumption and how we have adapted to drink/ digest milk
• development of obligate bipedalism
• Sickle cell trait and being a carrier and the cause of malaria
• look for more contemporary human adaptations
• vit D synthesis
- What does adaptability mean?
• Capacity to maintain function in the short or long term.
• To live and be healthy enough to pass on your genes to the next generation.
• It would be a live of sickness but it only matters to pass on the genetic info
- What are the caveats to the idea of adaptation?
• Be critical about what it means
• Be critical of arguments that might suggest something is adaptive significant -> is it? or is
this a convenient argument that overlook and/or helps maintain social inequities.
• There might be agendas or biases that can affect the idea of adaptation
3) Using a biocultural perspective
- What is it?
• Biological perspective: our biology shapes our capacity to develop culture our cultures can
shape our biologies
- What are some examples?
• we developed agriculture to help us but it then changed us by the spread of infectious
diseases, lactate persistence , sickle cell, malnutrition
• how we process food changes the way our brain develops and also the way it develops our
• how a more capitalist ideology changes chronic hungry etc, effecting social economic and
- Culture: set of behaviours transmitted from one generation to next through learning
- how primates learn how to use tools and social hierarchies and norms from other member of the
populations (ie how to become a mother, how to learn social hierarchies and how to challenge
someone in a certain way.) helpful in being coherent
- Health trade-offs and agriculture,
• how our actions can develop infectious diseases.
• TB has responded and adapted to the way we have treated it with certain medication
• diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Diseases in reservoir. Pregnant women can't
have contact with cat feces
• sometimes zoonoses are not a bad thing. i.e. small pox
- Infectious diseases and human culture. behaviours
• disease ecologies
4)Academic debates and the changing nature of knowledge
- The importance of Multiple lines of evidence
- Ongoing debates - Cultural or scientific biases that can shape our understandings/interpretations
• A. africanus Taung Child- in the 1920s many ppl were unwilling to accept that this was a
precursor to humans because it was found inAfrica and ppl thought that humans should have
evolved from Europe
• Romanticizing Neanderthal finds : shandy flower barrel, ppl wanted to see the neatherthal as
more link humans but were then proven wrong by more analysis
• Neanderthals and their relationships toAMH: yes they did interact and breed with humans
based on archaeological finds then switched to no they didn't interact withAMH based on
DNAanalysis but has now switched back to that they did
• Homo floresiensis: ppl couldn't get past th