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Lecture 4

ANTH 1120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Melanesians, Hypoplasia, Prognathism


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1120
Professor
E.Finnis
Lecture
4

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Neanderthals
October 8th 2015!
!
!
Next!Week’s!Assignment!
Timed exercise
o An hour with specimens (5 minutes each)
§ 45 minutes to answer questions
o 9 stations 8 unknown
§ 1 anatomically modern human for comparison
o 18 groups
§ KNOW YOUR GROUP NUMBER
Groups 11
o Start at 8pm
o You start at the station that is the same number as your group move
clockwise
WHAT TO STUDY
o Chronology
o Morphology
o Technology
o ONLY HOMINIDS!
§ No proto-hominids
§ No A. africanus
§ No H. habilis
o Everything will be reasonably complete
o All will be fully grown
o From Australopithecus onwards
!
Archaic!Hominids!!
Middle – late Pleistocene about 500,000 ya
Changes in tool complexity
o First clear evidence of wooden tool use
§ Wooden spears 400,000 ya
Primitive traits
o Brow ridges still large
o Cranial bones still thick
o Receding forehead
Derived traits
o Smaller teeth
o Larger cranial capacity
o Parallel-sided skull vault
o Maximum breadth at crown
o Overall looks more like us
!

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African!Archaic!Hominins!
East and south Africa
Bodo, Ethiopia
o 600,000 ya
o Partial cranium
§ Low vault
§ Heavy brow ridge
§ Thick cranial bones
§ Cut marks
Kawabe, Zambia
o Cranium
o Low vault
o Sloping forehead
o Heavy brow ridge
o Modern cranial capacity
!
Homo!Antecessor!-!Spain&
Debate on whether or not it is a separate species
Earliest occupants of Europe if it is
o 1.1 to 1.2 million ya
Gran Bolina site
§ About 780, 000 ya
o 6 individuals
§ Oldwan stone tools
§ Cut marks
o August 2010 paper: evidence of cannibalism as a subsistence strategy?
§ Same processing marks as non-human remains
!
Homo!Heidelbergensis!!
Debate whether or not it's a separate species or homo ergaster variant
Transitional species between H. erectus and later hominins
o Ancestor to Neanderthals and modern humans
o Pg. 255
Derived traits: rounded skull, higher, has thinner skull bones than H. erectus
Primitive traits: brow ridges are heavy, has a prominent occipital torus, lack of
chin
Behaviours:
o Big game hunting
o Cut marks on skull
§ Ritual, butchering, cannibalism
§ First evidence of hominin on hominin cut marks
o Acheulian tools
§ More complex
o Possible increased use of caves for living
o Exploited many seasonal foods
§ Some evidence for coastal food explanation
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