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Lecture 2

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ANTH 1150

Kottak Chapter 2Culture Definitions Enculturation the process by which a child learns his or her culture Symbols signs that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they stand for or signify cultural learning depends on the uniquely developed human capacity to use symbolsCore Values integrates each culture and helps distinguish it from others values ideas symbols and judgements Hominids members of the family Hominins the group that leads to humans by not to chimps and gorillas and that encompasses all the human species that ever have existedEstrus period of maximum sexual receptivity in female baboons chimpanzees and other primates signaled by vaginal area swelling and colorationUniversal found in every culture Generalities common to several but not all human groups Particularities unique to certain cultural traditions National Culture embodies those beliefs learned behavior patterns values and institutions that are shared by citizens of the same nationInternational Culture extends beyond and across national boundaries Subcultures different symbolbased patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in the same complex societyEthnocentrism the tendency to view ones culture as superior and to apply ones own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures Cultural Relativism the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another cultureHuman Rights include the right to speak freely to hold religious beliefs without persecution and not to be murdered injured or enslaved or imprisoned without charge Cultural Rights include a groups ability to preserve its culture to raise its children in the ways of its forebears to continue its language and not to be deprived of its economic base by the nation in which it is located
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