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University of Guelph
ANTH 1150
D Rose

Anthropology Oct 18/11 What is a mode of livelihood? -the dominant pattern, in a culture, of making a living -a particular mode may be dominant but other modes may exist in a culture -modes are often overlapping or mixed -5 modes of livelihood: -Foraging-hunt, fish, gather(men hunt, women gather), based in using food available in nature, main economic strategy for most of human history, maintains balance between resources and lifestyle, 250,000 foragers left, cultural survival of foragers is at risk -san peoples of southern African (no longer primarily foragers as their land has been taken from them) -Horticulture-grow crops using only hoe technology, usually on small amounts of land, growing crops in gardens using hand tools, technology is very simple, family forms the core work group, children work more than any other type of economy(caring for sibling, fetching fuel, hauling water) -Pastoralism-raising domesticated animals, animals and their products provide over half of the group’s diet (pastoralists trade with other groups to secure food and goods they cannot produce), movement of animals to new pastureland, levels of wealth and policies vary from group to group, families are the basic unit of production, gender division of labor (men herd, women make products) -Agriculture-labor intensive farming, (arrogation, tractors), intensive strategy of production (more labor, use of fertilizers, control of water supple, use of animals, involves indigenous knowledge), permanent settlements, higher population density -Industry-the production of good through mass employment in business and commercial operations, the creation, manipulation, management, and transfer of info through electronic media, goods produced to satisfy consumer demand , employment increases in manufacturing and service sectors, formal and informal sectors Was the invention of agriculture a mistake? -progressivist view says it was appositive development: -brought about major advances in cultural evolution, allows for more leisure time, so art could flourish -revisionist view says it is the worst mistake in history because of high “costs” -social inequality -disease -despotism -destruction of the environment Modes of exchange -balanced exchange(Kula): -generalized reciprocity-involves the leats conscious sense of interest in material gain of what might be received in return, mian form of exchange in foraging societies, also found in among close kin and friends cross-culturally, a pure gift is an extreme form -expected reciprocity-exchange of approx equally valued goods or services between people of roughly equal social status, exchange may be simultaneous or on an agreed upon schedule, if a party fails to complete the exchange, the relationship will break down -r
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