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Week 11 Notes.docx

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ANTH 1150
Tad Mc Ilwraith

Anthropology: Week 11: Language Linguistics -description of language -formal study of language and its properties Sociolinguistics -description of language in social settings -class + language LinguisticAnthropology -use of language → culture -speech -stories, storytelling Language -all cultures/people have language -technologically simple societies don’t have simple languages -all languages are equally able to provide speakers with means of communication → linguistic relativity Defining language -language is a set of publicly (shared in a group) accessible symbols by which individuals communicate Charles Hockett -Design features of language (properties) -spoken languages + signed languages 1. Discreteness -sets of discrete/unique sounds/signs -when combined, sounds mean something -interchangeable, old + new patterns 2. Symbolic -symbolic relationship between sounds/signs of a language + meaning -arbitrary 3. Dudity of Patterning -sound + image = meaning -sounds of a language do not mean anything by themselves 4. Productivity -open systems -there is an infinite # of ways to combine the sounds →new words and they can lie 5. Displacement -language isn’t tied to the present or to the geographical location the speaker is in 6. Channel -spoken vocal auditory -sign tactile visual 7. Learned -not learned through genetic inheritance 8. Rapid Fading Interchangeability –sender + receiver Feedback –you can perceive what you’ve sent Reflexive – you can talk about language Broadcast transmission + directional receptivity Communication – conveying of meaning messages from 1 person to another roman Jacobson 1.Addresser/sender 2. addresse/receiver 3. message → sound Need all these things 1-6 to be able to communicate 4. channel 5. code → common language 6. context → image Can you communicate with yourself? Discussion of electronic communication What is miscommunication? → any 6 of those features missing Animals Animal call systems -most agree that animal systems do not have all of Hockett’s design features -most animal call systems are closed systems → each discrete call is unique + can’t be combined with other cells → limited in topic range Example: Vervet Monkeys → 3 calls → eagle, leaopard, pythons → closed systems Honey bee- bee dance- info convey: distance to food, direction to food, quality of food → displacement
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