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Lecture 12

ANTH 1150 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Millennium Development Goals, Gender Studies, Lgbt Social Movements

Course Code
ANTH 1150
Marta Rohatynskyj

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Gender and Modernity
The Midterm
Average – 66%
Would like to see that go up on the final
Remember: there is almost 60% of course work yet to complete.
2 more Courselink Quizzes – 5%
1 more Reaction Statement – 3.33%
1 Reaction Paper – 10%
1 Final Exam – 40%
Develop a strategy to make use of your time well.
Seek appropriate help: from your TA, from Prof, from Bounce Back.
The Final
Correct answers to all midterm exam questions will be posted on Courselink once make-
up exam is over
Final exam will consist of 40% of questions on material before the midterm and 60% of
material after the midterm (44 + 66 = 110)
10 of the most difficult midterm questions will appear on the final in an altered form
12 questions will be based on the videos: 2 – Maya: Lords of the Jungle; 2 – Let there be
words; 4 – Dadi’s Family; 4 – Advertising Missionaries
Remainder of questions will be roughly evenly divided between Kottak, Knauft and
Quiz 3
24 questions - 12 Multiple Choice and 12 Ture/False
Friday, November 1st 12:01 am to Saturday, November 2nd 11:59pm.
Will be based on Kottak , Chapter 7, Knauft, Chapters 4,5,6 and Dadi’s Family
Possible 2.5% added to your cumulative average.
Traditional Gender Relations
Patriarchy and Patrilineality
In several cases of the patrilineal household that we`ve looked at, women`s position is
Women do not inherit land and are dependent on male relatives or husbands to have
access to land and a livelihood
Women do not transmit membership in the group and enter as strangers into their
husband`s household
In the video, Dadi`s Family, the narrator says that `a woman`s security rests on her
With control over little else, women cultivate relationships with male relatives of all
generations in order to secure their futures and those of their children
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Male/Female Equality
In recognizing the possibility of matrilineal and patrilineal descent early anthropologists
were recognizing the potential for equality between mother and father.
However, it is generally accepted that matriliny is not a mirror image of
patriliny and that there is no matriarchy…..
An Example of a Matriarchy- The Minangkabau of Indonesia
Matriarchy does not have to be the mirror image of patriarchy
Males and females are partners for the common good
Males and females do not compete out of self interest
This superior status of the woman is associated with a specific set of cultural values
Cultural Values of Minangkabau
Glorify mythical Queen Mother and cooperation
Senior women = central pillar of house.
Mother village = oldest village
The maternal is the center, origin and foundation of social life
Women inherit land
Husband moves to wife’s residence
Divorce - husband collects his clothes and leaves.
But neither male or female rule is possible because of belief that decision making is
based on concensus
Nature-based matriarchal culture - to nourish
Egalitarian and cooperative values of society in general
The values of a matriarchy
There is no absolute authority in a matriarchy as there is in a patriarchy
Both men and women strive to cooperate for the common good and do not compete over
scarce resources
Many matrilineal societies have been described as focused on the maintenance of social
relationships and not on competition
Gender and Modernity
Definition of Gender
Sex differences are biological but gender encompasses all the traits that a culture assigns
to and inculcates in males and females.
Gender refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics.
Margaret Mead is credited with being the first to use the term ‘gender in the
contemporary sense
What was the world like for men and women before the term gender was used for the
cultural construction of difference?
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