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Foraging/farming or herding
“tribal” ; “Fourth World” ; “First Nations”
Seemingly remote from economic and political centres
Social Darwinist ideas about the inevitability and desirability of “progress”
Resettlement, development, conservation parks, tourism and resistance
Who are the Zapatistas?
Soldiers are Mayan and non-Indigenous campesinos (rural poor)
Named for Nahua Indian General Emiliano Zapata (Mexican Revolution, 1910)
Wear masks to show that they represent the collective will, not individual leader(s)
Located in Chiapas, Mexico
What is there struggle for?
Work, land, housing, food, healthcare, education, independence, liberty, democracy,
justice, peace and in a later declaration, culture, information, security, combating of
corruption and preservation of the environment
The Kayapo Resistance
Xingu River (Pará State, Brazil)
rain forest and savannah
sustained contact with outside world starting in the late 1950s
1993 population @ 4000, living in 14 villages
received formal land reserves (semi-autonomous territory) from Brazil in 1980s and
attempts to suppress those aspects of Kayapo culture incompatible with integration
into Western society
Sociocentric concept of personhood
introduction of manufactured goods
“presents” replace raiding
Kayapo needed to acquire control over the means of acquiring commodities
their culture used against them as a pretext for subordination by dominant groups
lacked a viable political response
kinship system, post-marital residence patterns, rituals, age-grade system etc.
survived, per Turner, because they enabled social reproduction