•Theory used to explain/understand the processes of economic, social, political
and religious changes that accompany industrial technological change.
• Rooted in Enlightenment thinking and Social Darwinism.
• Evolutionary framework.
• Societies pass through a series of stages, each progressively “better” than the
• Industrialised societies have already passed through these stages, duty is to
assist other societies to follow suit.
•The Path to Modernity
• Traditional stage
• Cultural change stage
• Economic change
• Self-sustained growth
• High economic growth
• Increase in standard of living
• SOL measured by mass production and consumption of material goods
• Western Europe and North America reached this stage in the 1920s, Japan in
•The World Today
• two contradictory tendencies:
• unifying and fusion of ethnic groups (eg European Union)
• fragmentation and the increase of ethnic nationalism and violence (eg
• One theory holds that both of these tendencies are the result of globalization.
•Globalization refers to an interconnected set of processes
• Tendency toward a single global economy
• Tendency toward cultural homogeneity
• Tendency toward uniform political ideology
• Increasing interconnectedness and interdependence
•Single Global Economy
• NAFTA, FTAA, EU, CARICOM,
• World Trade Organization, World Bank, IMF
• Multinational corporations
• Spread of Industrial technologies
• Mass consumerism
• Mass media
•Spread of liberal democracy versus increases in human rights violations
•Increase in wealth/income versus exploitation of world's poor, uneven benefits
•Increase in standard of living versus decline in standard of living
•Peace in the Global Village versus the erosion of cultural diversity
•Freedom versus power of corporations
•Neoliberal Economic Policies
•Globalisation and Culture
• Trend to cultural homogeneity
• “McDonaldisation”; “Coca-Colonisation”
• Hollywood; Satellite Television
• Predominance of English language, e.g. on the Internet
• Global village
•Refers to the spread of one culture at the expense of another, or the
imposition of one culture onto another which it modifies, replaces or destroys.
• Are people passive recipients of culture?
• Meaning is not fixed
• Modification, syncretism, etc.
•VIDEO: Life and Debt