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Anthropology Review[1].doc

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ANTH 1150
D Rose

Anthropology Review Anthropology-Offers a broad view of distinct and comparative cross cultural perspectives. The study of human species and its immediate ancestors (past, present and future). Biological-The study of human biology diversity in time and space. Focus on human evolution, human genetics, human growth/development, human coping mechanisms and evolution in non-human primates. Linguistics-The study of language in its social and cultural context across space and time. Archaeology-The study that reconstructs, describes and interprets human behaviour and cultural patterns through material remains. E.g. archaeological digs Social/cultural-The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences. Applied The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory and methods to identify, asses and solve contemporary social problems. More in the field than academic anthropologists. Ethnography-Usually a piece of writing about one group of people. Ethnology-Usually a comparison between 2 or more cultures/groups. Ethnohistory-Looking at documents and records to figure out anthropological themes. Fieldwork-Spending time (usually 12months) and living with the people who you are studying. Usually go in with a theory or an ethnographic question. Functionalism-Idea that socialization is there to meet all human needs through certain institutions. Everything has a function in society. Malinowski-Studied in England and was given money to study abroad, he went to Australia. He decided that an in-depth study of native people would be best. -Had a revolutionary idea of going out to the cultures instead of being an armchair anthropologist. He then studied in New Guinea and then moved to the Trobian islands. -Developed the idea of participant observation and functionalism. Magic-the Trobrianders believe there are magical rights for everything such as growing crops, fishing and love. They believe that magic spells are needed to assist the technical workings of farming and that it is necessary to bring the growth up and control the weather. Our magic is like your fertilizer. The Kula-Center of trobrian life and marks the beginning of an elaborate and dangerous series of expeditions. Kula means to go. -Go out to other islands and trade with other tribes and bring back treasures (objects have a personal history and cannot be bought or sold and are special items of exchange). -Clockwise moves necklaces; contraclockwise moves bracelets. -Starts with the building of a kula canoe and ends with the presentations of the necklaces to good/close friends. Speech-Malinowski and others spoke of the trobrianders as being savages, uncivilized which is politically incorrect. In this day and age this language is not acceptable. Culture-Abstracts set of beliefs, values and attitudes that when acted upon result in behaviour that is considered appropriate by the members of the group. -Learned (not rooted in biology), shared (cannot just have 1 person), symbolic (i.e. veil, clothes), contested (not everyone believes in the attitudes/beliefs to the same degree), dynamic (culture is dynamic and changes throughout time) and universal (everyone has a culture). Cultural Relativism-Strive to understand cultural practices in terms of the values and beliefs of the group that practices them. Idea that even though you must take into account the different values of another culture you can still keep your moral values and not accept things like the KKK or Nazis. Ethnocentrism-The tendency to view ones cultural practices as natural, normal, necessary and to judge others cultures according to your own standards. Probably a universal tendency because thats how culture operates. Linguistics-Split into 2 sections physical evolution and descriptive/structural linguistics Physical Evolution-Questions if only humans that have the capacity for language? Why? Language- The means of communicating thoughts, feelings, emotions etc. It is not stimulus dependent and can discuss past, present and future. Call System-Definitely a form of communication but distinct from language because call systems are stimulus dependent (stimulus must be present for call). No past or future. Cocoa, Washu-Gorillas and chimps were taught sign language and exhibited signs of real language because they lied, could use productivity which are both components of language. This suggests non-human primates do have the capacity for language and culture not just call systems. Descriptive/Structural linguistics-Describes the structure/components of language. Phonology-Phonemes are the smallest units of sound that result in a change in meaning in any given language. E.g. say humans can produce 200 sounds about 50 sounds are used per language. Must systematically go through the language to find the amount of phonemes in that language. -Minimal pair-2 units of sound where there is only 1 phoneme different e.g. hat/cat. Morphology-Morpheme is that smallest unit of language that has meaning (doesnt necessarily have to be a word). E.g. teacher, teach and er are both morphemes. -Bound Morpheme- When added to another morpheme it changes the meaning E.g. ing Syntax-The arrangement of words to form phrases and sentences. Semantics-A lexicon is the total stock of words in a language. And a lexicon (language) reflects the relationship between culture and language. Non-verbal language-Gestures, body language, body art, paralanguage (tone of voice), fashion. Body language and gestures are both culture specific. Sapir Whorf Hypothesis-Whorf worked for an insurance company investigating fires and found that many fires started because of miscommunication. He came up with the idea that the language we speak shapes the way we see/perceive/interact with the world. -Strong version is that there is no reality and that we see reality through language. -Soft version is that the language we use influences our reality ad how we perceive things Sociolinguistics-Addresses questions like what is the relationship between language and power? Focuses on gender; the idea that men and women speak a different language. Deborah Tannen-Wrote Report vs. Rapport which says that men (in North American society) see conversation as giving and receiving of information whereas women see it as the process of developing a relationship (rapport). However, not only gender but context. Robin Lakoff- Research Methods Participant Observation-Not only observe the culture but totally immerse yourself and participate whole heartedly in the day to day practices of the culture. Interviews-Formal and informal conversations (sometimes with an interpreter). Key Consultants-Are people who by accident, experience, talent, or training can provide the most complete or useful information about particular aspects of life. Life Histories- If an anthropologist finds someone particularly interesting they collect their life history. Longitudinal Research-The long term study of a community, region, society or culture usually based on repeated visits. Team Research-Many anthropologists go to the one place often staggered so the research come to be like a longitudinal study. Ethics-There was no code of ethics till after WW2. You can never lose your status as an anthropologist. There are separate codes for applied and academic anthropologists. -Have an obligation to people whom you work and write about; must get consent and also to the best of your ability to do no harm to them. E.g. use pseudonyms for people/towns -Have an obligation to the organization funding you. Difficult because you may indirectly be funded by a group that will/does cause issues/harm to the people you study. -Have an obligation to the discipline of anthropology. I.e. dont make stuff up, maintain integrity of the discipline and to leave so another anthropologist can go back. -Have an obligation to society (some believe just to the university and students not a wider pop but some disagree and believe its to everyone.) -Have an obligation to students to teach to the best of your ability and keep current. Imperialism-Policy of extending rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies. Colonization-Political, social, economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time. -Colonials decided where the borders were which had nothing to do with the original people, made them learn specific languages as well as lumping unlike people together. British Colonialism-Colony was huge and led by the desire for profit. It was originally concentrated in the Caribbean, Africa, Canada, USA and India. Idea that the British need to parent/govern the other placesobligation to the countries. French Colonialism-Not a huge colony led by the desire to spread Christianity which they did through spreading the French culture. -Slaves were converted to Catholicism and baptized as well as being taught and encouraged to have a family/marry. Marx-Believed that the classes were split into two. The Bourgeoisie (capitalists who own property and the means of production) and the proletariat (workers who sell labour). -Believed the economy was the most influential institution. Weber-Disagreed with Marx and said he focused too much on the economy and said that peoples status/class was not to do with production but more on prestige and power. He had 3 classes Wealth (economic status), Power (political status) and Prestige (social status). communism- Describes a social system in which property is owned by the community and where people work towards a common good. Communism-Political movement seeking to overthrow capitalism and to establish a communism much the like soviet union. Immanual Wallerstein-Looked at the idea of 1 economic system (world system theory) which was basically ran by trade (which is the movement
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