ANTH 1150 Lecture Notes - Ethnocentrism, Marcel Mauss, Franz Boas

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Anthropology Introduction 9/13/2011 6:48:00 AM
What is Anthropology?
Anthropology is a grand discipline.
1) The scope and historical depth of a general anthropology is ambitious.
2) There is no other discipline that contains so vast an array of research
subjects and so varied a collection of methodologies.
3) It can be argued that there is no more interdisciplinary or discipline
nor grand decision of the application of scientific knowledge.
A General Anthropology
- Four fields (Archaeology, Linguistics, Biological Anthropology, Social/
Cultural Anthropology)
- Recognizes human production of culture
- These stand in a dynamic relationship with each other and with other
disciplines.
Canadian Anthropology
- Most Canadian universities follow the four field approach.
- There is also a British influence that pairs social anthropology with
sociology.
There has always been an applied aspect to anthropology
- origins of modern anthropology grew out of politically charged issue of
difference.
- internal and external colonialism.
- issues of poverty, ill health and control of populations within an
environment.
- Some of the most dedicated anthropologists were missionaries and
administrative personnel, facing problems of the impact of colonialism on
indigenous populations.
Public Issues Anthropology/ Public Anthropology
- theoretical, esoteric, scientific goals have existed in balance with
applied goals
- there is a current emphasis on applied goals knowledge serving the
public.
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- Research designed, carried out and published in collaboration with
research communities is the ideal.
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What is Anthropology? 9/13/2011 6:48:00 AM
What is Anthropology?
It is believed that people all over the world are all the same. This assumption is wrong.
Anthropology examines all societies (ancient and modern).
It offers cross-culture perspectives
Compares customs and believes of societies.
Ethnography: personal study of local settings; Spending about a year in another culture,
living with locals and learning about culture).
Human Adaptability
Exploration of human diversity in time and space
Studies whole of human condition (biology, society, language, culture and interests).
Culture produces a degree of consistency in behavior and thought among the people
who live in a particular society (Kottak 2).
Adaptation: process which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses,
such as those posed by climate or landforms.
Human Biological Diversity and the Race Concept
Biocultural: inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and
approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem.
Culture is a key environmental force in determining how human bodies grow and
develop.
Explanatory Approaches
Natural Selection: process by which the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a
given environment do so in greater numbers than others in the same population do.
Survival of the fittest = Natural Selection, most evolved survive and produce evolved off-
springs.
The Subdisciplines of Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology: study of human society and culture, Describes, analyzes,
interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
Ethnography: (based on field work) Ethnographers collect data then organizes,
describes, analyzes and interprets and creates a presentation with it. Data is collected by
living in small communities and learning the culture. Observing first hand the behaviors,
beliefs, customs, social life, economic activities, politics and religion.
Field work required for data collection
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