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University of Guelph
ANTH 1150
Hank Davis

Anthropology 1 Chapter 8: Kottak Chapter 8: Gender Sex and Gender  Men and women differ genetically o Women have 2 X chromosomes and men have an X and a Y. o The father determines the baby’s sex because only he has the Y chromosome.  Dimorphism: differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals.  Women tend to live longer than men. Men tend to be taller and weigh more than women.  Although in most societies men tend to be somewhat more aggressive than women are, many of the behavioural and attitudinal differences between the sexes emerge from culture rather than society.  Gender roles- tasks and activities a culture assigns to the sexes.  Gender stereotypes: oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females.  Gender stratification: describes an unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy.  Ann Stoler- said the economic determinants of gender status include freedom or autonomy and social power.  Study of the Ilongots of northern Luzon in the phillipines: o Michelle Rosaldo described gender differences related to the positive cultural value placed on adventure, travel, and knowledge of the external world. o Ilongots men: visited distant places. The acquired knowledge of the external world, amassed experienced there, and returned to express their knowledge, adventures and feelings in the public oratory. o Ilongot women: has inferior prestige because they lacked external experiences on which to base knowledge and dramatic expression. Recurrent Gender Patterns  Even if we still think in terms of “men’s work” and “women’s work”, ideas about gender are changing along with employment patterns of men and women. But old beliefs, cultural expectations and challenges, and gender stereotypes linger.  When American men and women display certain behaviour, they are judged differently.  The Hidatsa: a Native American group in which the women made the boats wsed to cross the Missouri River. Pawnee women worked wood; this is the only Native American group that assigned this activity to women.  In about half the societies studied, men did no domestic work. Even in societies where men did some domestic chores, the bulk of such work was done by women.  Women tend to be caregivers in most societies but men often play a role. Women have primary authority over infants in 2 thirds of the societies  Differences in male and female reproductive strategies: o Women work to ensure their progeny will survive by establishing a close bond with each baby. Women can have only so many babies during their reproductive years. o Men have a longer reproductive period, which can last into the elder years. Men can enhance their reproductive success by impregnating several women over a longer time of period. They have a greater tendency to do so than women do. Gender Roles and Gender Stratification  Economic roles affect gender stratification.  In one cross-culture study, Sanday found that gender stratification decreased when men and women made roughly equal contributions to subsistence. She found that gender stratification was greatest when the women contributed either much more or much less than the men did.  In foraging societies, gender stratification was most marked when men contributed much more to the diet than women did.  This was true among the Inuit and other northern hunters and fishers.  Among tropical and semitropical foragers, by contrast, gathering usually supplies more food than hunting and fishing do.  Gathering is the women’s job. Men usually hunt and fish.  Domestic: within or pertaining to the home.  Domestic-public dichotomy: Strong differentiation between the home and the outside world. The outside world can include politics, trade, warfare or work.  This can promote gender stratification because men are more likely to be active in the public domain than women are. Reduced Gender Stratification—Matrilineal—Matrilocal Societies.  With matrilineal descent and matrilocality (residence after marriage with the wife’s relatives), female status tends to be high. Matriliny and matrilocality disperse related males, rather than consolidation them.  Patriliny and patrilocality (residence after marriage with the husbands kin) keep male relatives together.  Matrilineal-matrilocal systems tend to occur in societies where population pressure on strategic resources is minimal and warfare is infrequent.  Women tend to have high status in matrilineal, matrilocal societies for several reasons. Descent-group membership, successions to political positions, allocation of land, and overall social identity all come through female links.  Matrilocality created solidary clusters of female kin. Anthropology 3 Chapter 8: Kottak Matriarchy  Peggy Sanday concluded that matriarchies exist, but not as mirror images od patriarchies. The superior power of men have in a patriarchy isn’t matched by women’s equally disproportionate power in a matriarchy.  Many societies lack the power differentials that typify patriarchal systems.  Sanday considers the Minangkabau a matriarchy because women are the center, origin, and foundation of social order. Senior women are associated with the central pillar of the traditional house, the oldest one in the village.  The oldest village in a cluster is called the “mother village” Increased Gender Stratification—Patrilineal—Patrilocal Societies  Martin and Voorhies link the decline of matriliny and the spread of the patrilineal-patrilocal complex (consisting of patrilineality, patrilocality, warfare, and male supremacy) to pressure on resources.  Faced with scarce resources, patrilineal—patrilocal cultivators such as the Yanomami often wage warfare against other villages. This favours patrilocality and patriliny, customs that keep related men together in the same village, where the make strong allies in battle.  The patrilineal-patrilocal complex characterizes many societies in highland Papua New Guinea. Women work hard growing and processing subsistence crops, raising and tending pig and doing domestic cooking, but they are isolated from the public domain, which men control.  In densely populated areas of the Papua New Guinea highlands, male-female avoidance is associated with strong pressure on resources. Men fear all female contacts, including sex.  They think that sexual contact with women will weaken them. Patriarchy and Violence  Patriarchy describes a political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights.  Barbara Miller- studied systematic neglect of females, describes women in rural northern India as “the endangered sex.” Societies that feature a full- fledged patrilineal-patrilocal complex, replete with warfare and inter-village raiding, also typify patriarchy.  With the spread of the women’s rights movement and the human’s rights movement, attention to domestic violence and abuse of women has increased. Laws have been passed and mediating institutions established. Gender in Industrial Societies. 
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