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Informed by idea of evolution form natural history (charles darwin) Informed by enlightenment ideals of progress through rational inquiry. Optimism that science would lead to the betterment of human kind, strong eurocentric. Each stage must emerge from the one before. European society the epitome of progress and perfection so far. The more different a society is the lower they are presumed to be on the evolutionary scale. Lewis henry morgan - had different ethnical stages y there were 3 different scales for. These ethnographers are considered armchair - they looked at books, and other information, they did not go to view or interview the subjects they were writing about. Spend a long period of time living with the people you intend to write about. Learn the language that the people speak y y y participate, as much as possible, in the social lives of the people about whom you intend to write about.

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