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Muckle Ch. 2.doc

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University of Guelph
ANTH 3650
Edward Hedican

Muckle – Chapter 2: Studying the Indigenous peoples of North America through the lens of Anthropology Culture • Core concept in anthropology – defined as the learned or shared things people have • Material culture includes tangible items [tools, structures] • Ideology includes beliefs, morals, values • Things people do are commonly called customers and include behavior patterns • Society as being comprised of people / culture is what binds these people together as a group • Culture is learned, shared and not every member has to necessarily share same cus- toms, material culture, and beliefs • Several components of culture including: o Subsistence – strategies people use to obtain food [foraging, hunting, gathering] o Settlement patterns – patterns in which people move across landscape o Technology – way people create material culture as well as the way people process things [cooking, preserving foods, creating art] o Communication – language [study both verbal and non verbal including symbols and gestures] o Economic systems – modes of production, distribution, trade, consumption o Social and political systems – form and function of social organizations based on de- scent groups, kinship groups, marriage, family patterns, social inequality o Ideology – how people relate to the spiritual/supernatural world, as well as values and worldview [mythology, ceremonial life] o Arts – visual [painting, carving, sculptures] and performing arts [dance, music] o Health and healing – how people diagnose and treat illnesses [both physical causes and spiritual causes] • In North America, Anthropology has four major branches 1) Cultural o Largest subfield o Focus on cultures of the present or recent past o Immense themselves with the group they are studying writing descriptions [ethnogra- phy] in the form of participant observation 2) Archeology o Study of past human groups through material remains, tools, remnants o Seek to reconstruct components of the cultures of past groups and explain culture change 3) Linguistics o Focus on the classification of language o Determining cultural relationships in the past on similarities of languages 4) Biological o Focus on human biology, past and present o Focus on skeletal remains o Evidence used to make inferences about many aspects of people fr
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