Class Notes (834,722)
Canada (508,693)
Anthropology (728)
ANTH 3650 (35)
Lecture

jenningsch.4.doc

5 Pages
53 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 3650
Professor
Edward Hedican
Semester
Fall

Description
Jennings Chapter 4: The Archaic Stage Previous era ‘stage’ determined by characteristics; - focus on large game-subsistence patterns - little (or simply lack of evidence) material cultural property (poverty in this case) - no evidence of plant products - simple technology - tools and utensils - uncomplicated sociopolitical organization - cultural skills and institutions limited to those required for survival (in pursuit of game) Archaic Period - ranging from 8000BP until AD 1850s in some places - described as foraging pattern of existence - coincided with Folsom and Plano phases - defined interpretively (artifact varies, a single definition on basis of an artifact cannot be universally applied) - specific specialized tools and utensils for varied (new) subsistence base - technologically more versatile and complex (then previous stages) - subsistence varied season to season, and tool inventory expanded Tools - ground stone woodworking tools : for forest environment (ax, wedge, gouge) - milling equipment : (mortars, pestles etc) - stone vessels : represent greater permanence of occupancy - ground slate points and knives : polished, also shows permanency - choppers and scrapers continue BUT drill first found in Archaic - greater variety of points - bone, horn and ivory made into awls, perforators and needles : indicates basket mak- ing and skinworking - evidence of marine prey : spears, gorges, hooks, harpoons, - shells : evidence of adornment and ornament - copper and asphaltum new to Archaic period Changes - formalized burials (round graves, partial cremation, inclusion of grave goods) : indicate temporal continuity Archaic Research - little evidence of houses and storage sites - trouble understanding Archaic as continent wide culture - definition tough in organizational terms without a commoner artifact - became accepted through term use (credited to Richie 1932) by ’58 fully accepted - key: Archaic as a lifeway, not geared to any one ecosystem Forest Efficiency - Interest in Archaic began in Eastern area - Caldwell 1958 Primary Forest Efficiency - thesis - point: more species variation (hunting as well as harvesting, seasonal progress) the beginnings of diversity specialization of tools. Technological skills increase as well. - East: uniform growth - Seasonal successes: thus without surplus settlements and permanent dwelling sites - primary forest efficiency may imply movement of groups to a schedule, but certainly not aimless, or nomadic. Caldwells Thesis - Archaic cultures became more and more complex and show increasing inventory of tools through time - populations increase - communications ease - greatest potential for cultural innovation - closing of Archaic = conquest for space completed - further efficiency in exploitation: implies new techniques of food preparation, broad- ened range of raw materials - leads to natural innovations Cont. - utilization of plant fibers = development of textile arts, = results: mats, baskets, bags - invention of basket = expedited gathering, transport and storage - fibers to make nets, to catch fish, rodents and fowl. - vegetable fiber makes cordage - used in traps, fishlines, snares, - greater devices = prepared for greater numbers with less effort - *Archaic: a series of inventions and innovations (utilizing raw materials not yet evident to earlier cultures) - technological advance = leads to special tools (rather than all purpose) increasing skills, lead to refinements, better efficient food collecting and other specialized tools Eastern Archaic - many reported Archaic sites - varied Gravers discovered (points, with different markings and chippings) - additional flint tools: flat flakes with secondary chippings on edges to make knives or scrapers - scrapers of thick flakes, rectangular, oval, triangular - storage pits and hearths uncovered - (these sites are important as ‘house’ type findings are rare - animal food bones (show range of diet) - range of hunting specialized tools - indication of seasonal intent (what bone
More Less

Related notes for ANTH 3650

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit