Note: the midterm will not be on just this half, is cumulative. "concept of interstadail" (he likes the chart from text) Advance and retreat of ice during the wisconsin stage. Wide fluctuation even during the so called ice age some times actually warm. The forests of thunderbay were of spruce and pine ie hard woods, were pushed there from ontario by the ice. The north america of 7000 years ago was much like the climate of present. Talked about how we have no idea what causes ice ages thus why get worked up over global warming. Deep set eyes, hairy they lived in northern part of japan but originally lived all over it. It was the japanese that pushed them northward. Treated them much like europeans did the first nations. tried to assimilate them but they resisted and well the feeling was mutu- al.