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ANTH 3650
Edward Hedican

Lecture 12 Oct. 16. 2012 III. Controversy over Early Sites 1. Calico and Louis Leakey 2. Taber Site in Alberta 3. Old Crow Site (Yukon) and Caribou Bone Flesher 4. “Kennewick Man” (Washington State, USA) and Possible European Origins 5. Ainu of Japan 6. Problem of Possible Transoceanic Contacts Paleolithic Paleo - meaning ‘stone’ lithic - meaning ‘old’ Lewis Leaky - Paleontologist Homo Sapiens ‘the knowing creatures’ - present form - 50,000-60,000 years existence Homo Neanderthal - became extinct 20,000-25,000 years ago - anthropologists at first, for many years, were unsure where they fit into evolution - rugged built, different skulls Homo Habilis - basic stone tools - not in same category of Homo Sapiens as far as brain size - more sophisticated than erectus Homo Erectus - created that walked upright - rugged features Australopithecus - a million years ago, - likely around for 2-3 million years - two forms 1. Africanus - up right hominid, 3 feet to a meter tall. - fully upright, small brained, omnivorous (plant and animal) life style - relied heavily on termites for food, ape like stick root to bring termites out, bad on health, died very young, eventually died out 2. Robustus - heavy molars for grinding vegetable matter - also died out - larger/taller than Africanus Note - upright comes first - then brain size follows (brain size larger as newer) - natural selection, traits to survive 1. Lewis Leakey Calico Site California (Calico Mountains, Archaeological Project, 1954) - excavations - presence of early ‘chopper’ tools, scraper with multifunctions - no organic material therefore no carbon dating - some testing of chemicals in rock dated 200,00 years old +/- 20,000 years (Uranium- thorium tests) - stated: artifacts found here are similar to ones in Africa - many discrediting him, can’t believe the date of 200,000, state cant be Sapiens at that time, certainly not natives, - conference meeting for anthropologists/archaeologists/Paleo they decide: these arti- facts are naturally made artifacts not human made “Geo-Facts” - artifacts made by natural processes - denying credibility to the site, denying anything to do with human occupation 2. Taber Site in Alberta - Cyprus Hills - untouched area - ice didn’t go through/up the mountain, it went around it - preserved over mostly en
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