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Lecture 12

Anth: Lecture 12 Oct. 18

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 3690
Professor
Marta Rohatynskyj
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 12 Oct. 18. 2011 Appadurai and Bourdieu Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy (1990) Arjun Appadurai Introduction to Appadurai follows in the tradition of Wolf in focusing on linkages rather than bounded entities • • follows upon Andre Gunther Frank’s ‘dependency theory’ in being concerned with the inequalities that occur transnationally • American Emigrant, of Indian background India has the highest number of middle class people • • education • Follows upon Emmaneul Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory in insisting on viewing global and transnational relations But, his theory of globalization and recognized the post-modern forms of the process • • whose our earlier example of globalization or linkages between nations: malinowski ? Marx? Global Cultural Interaction Today • Of new order and of greater intensity • Previously the two main forms were warfare and religious conversion • The forces of cultural gravity seemed always to pull away from large scale ecumenes • defined: bringing together, from different nations, ‘entities’ participating in larger groupings than they did before. • ex. WWII, people partake and then retreat to own national concerns, but globalization today does not allow that retreat • Ecumene - large-scale, relatively homogeneous body of meanings, practices and interests • for Geertz its tied to meaning, to have a sense of the culture • The gravitational field changed since 1500 so that ‘an overlapping set of ecumenes began to emerge, in which congeries of money, commerce, conquest, and migration began to cross- societal bonds.’ • technological developments allowed for the creation of complex colonial orders centered on European capitals Imagined Communities • wrote about nation state that developed with invention of printing press • Benedict Anderson - imagined communities - printing press - allowed for the imagination of the nation • print allowed for the imagination of ethnic groups in the complex processes of colonization • constructed primordialism • primordialism: the view, popular today only among extreme nationalist, that ‘races’ and nations are possessed of a ‘primordial’ essence, always under threat from ‘invasive’ outsiders the advent of new technologies have transformed this landscape into a deterritorialized • ethnic diversity the hyperreal - that which the world assumes to be real is actually without origin or reality. • • post-modern • as a result of media coverage and digital technology - what counts as reality is now ‘a question of substituting the sign of the real for the real’ the link between it and the sign is broken. People are accepting the sign as the reality. so it • becomes hyperreal. charged contest where people are exposed to numerable samples of reality. Cultural Homogenization / Cultural Heterogenization • Homogenization - either commodification or Americanization (Russification, Hinduization) • traditional culture will be gone and everyone will be “americanized” due to globalization • this did not happen depends where you are / who you are / where this homogenizing force is • • The global structure can not be understood in terms of center/periphery • throwing Wallerstein out the window • Scott Lash and John Urry - disorganized capitalism first writers on globalization but not anthropologists • • There are fundamental disjunctures between economy, culture and politics • If there are centers and peripheries, there are many and they exist at different levels of inclusion and influence Global Flows • Ethnoscapes - flows of ethnic individuals: tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles, guest workers etc • stable communities are shot through with people in motion • mediascapes - read of various forms of media: news, films and music • takes money to move • movement of classes, class limitations for movement • technoscapes - spread of technology • financescapes - flow of capital • These are not objectively given relationships rather they are deeply perspectival • They are the building blocks of ‘imagined worlds’ - the multiple worlds that are constituted by the historically situated imaginations of persons and groups spread around the world • depending on where/who you are, you will imagine it differently Ideoscapes • chains of ideas, terms and images: freedom, welfare, rights, sovereignty, representation, and the master term - democracy • how are they spread across the globe, where to people rally to support these ideas,
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