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Fluids notes.docx

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1020
Andreas Heyland

Fluid & electrolyte (Cont.) What happens if we drink  water? - Overhydration – rare - Can occur: in active people who drink large volumes of water without replacing Na - Hyponitrimia: leads to  blood Na – if untreated, leads to seizures, coma, death - Treated by consuming liquids/foods  in Na; IV solution What happens if we drink  water? - Dehydration – one of leading causes of death globally - Infants/elderly particularly at risk - Infants: excrete urine at  rate; have  fluid requirement; cannot express thirst - Elderly: thirst mechanism less sensitive - Symptoms for dehydration in adults: thirst, light-headedness, less frequent urination, dark-coloured urine, fatigue, dry skin - Symptoms for dehydration in kids: dry mouth/tongue, no tears when crying, no wet diapers for 3+ hours,  fever, sunken abdomen/eyes/cheeks, irritable/listless, skin that does not flatten when pinched/released Sources of fluid in diet - Water, watery foods (fruits/veggies 90% water), juice, milk, soups (low Na) - Not caffeinated/carbonated beverages, alcohol – they are diuretics) Canadian tap water from 2 sources - Surface water (lakes, rivers, reservoirs) - Can be contaminated by runoff from highways, pesticides, animal/industrial wastes - Ground water (underground rock formations – aquifers) - Can be contaminated by waste sites, dumps, landfills, oil/gas pipelines - Chlorine removes contaminants – impossible to remove all - Cl may be linked to cancer Bottled water - Most bottling plants use ozone instead of chlorine - May taste better, but no evidence that it is better to drink - May come from protected ground water (may come from tap) Sodium (Na, Na+) - Exists in food as NaCl: sodium chloride, table salt - 1 tsp salt = 2300 mg Na - Also exists as sodium bicarbonate (leavening agent), sodium nitrate (preservative), monosodium glutamate (flavour enhancer) Na is essential - Functions: fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, helps cells absorb glucose, helps regulate BP via changes in blood volume - Adequate intake for men/women 19-50y is 1500mg/day (1 cup = 1200 mg) How much Na do we consume? - Average Canadian consumes double AI (~3400 mg/day), wel
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