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Lecture 2

BIOL 1050 Lecture 2: POLS 3270 WEEK 2

6 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1050
Professor
Lori Jones

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WEEK 2 – MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS IN THE FEDERAL SYSTEM FOUNDATIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT CONSTITUTIONAL DIVISION OF POWERS S.91 – powers of parliament (the federal government) S.92 – powers of the provincial legislatures Constitution does not refer to local government “Creatures of the province” EXCLUSIVE PROVINCIAL POWERS Exclusive Powers of Provincial Legislatures 92. In each province the legislature may exclusively make laws in relation to matters coming within the classes of subjects next hereinafter enumerated; that is to say, 8. Municipal institutions in the province. 13. Property and civil rights in the province. 16. Generally all matters of a merely local or private nature in the province. FOUNDATIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT 1900s – first municipal institutions Courts of the Quarter Sessions Judicial, administrative & legislative responsibilities Baldwin Act, 1849 – first municipal act - Ontario model tended to be what provinces followed, development of distinct urban and rural societies, - Baldwin Act (1849) represented first attempt at legislation for uniform municipal policy across province MUNICIPAL ACT, 2001 First comprehensive review & overhaul in 150 years! In effect as of Jan. 1, 2003 Natural person powers 10 spheres of jurisdiction Highways Transportation systems Waste management Utilities Culture, parks, recreation & heritage Drainage/flood control Structures (fences & signs) Parking Animal control Economic development Business licensing (2006) Greater accountability Ongoing consultation - Mike Harris common sense revolutions, how Baldwin act could be revised - “natural person powers” municipalities have the same power individuals and corporations have, they can sue and be sued, etc. municipalities can enter agreements, hire, essentially manage themselves, 10 spheres of responsibility, (transit, waste management, etc.). - Greater accountability and reporting WELLINGTON COUNTY City of Guelph (separated) Town of Erin Town of Minto Township of Centre Wellington Township of Guelph-Eramosa Township of Mapleton Township of Puslinch Township of North Wellington WELLINGTON COUNTY Lower-tier – all 8 are lower-tier municipalities Upper-tier – Corporation of the County of Wellington 16 member council Mayors of 7 municipalities & 9 directly elected ward councillors City of Guelph is not a part of the upper-tier municipality - -lower and upper counties of municipalities STRUCTURE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT Lower-tier / single-tier Urban – city, town, village Rural – township, parish, rural municipality Upper-tier Rural – county Urban – regional municipality or metropolitan municipality - Upper tier municipalities don’t tax citizens directly they omit bill to lower municipalities and share cost with upper structure TWO-TIER CITY GOVERNANCE IN ONTARIO First experiment – Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto “Metro” Toronto Created Jan. 1, 1953 Originally 13 municipalities 12 council seats for Toronto 12 seats for remaining 12 municipalities Post-1967 – 6 lower-tier municipalities Toronto – 12/32 seats Indirectly elected Changes in 1988 – 6 lower-tier mayors & 28 directly elected councillors Chair of ‘Metro’ chosen by elected members Early 1970s – Halton, Peel, York & Durham 1988 – Office of the GTA - Division of powers can be quite arbitrary, ex. Police and fire could be provided across much larger regions (Peel police provide a large service) - First experiment metropolitan of Toronto (Metro Toronto) - Prior to this every city in Canada was single tier - Number of municipalities surrounding Toronto could not finance themselves, didn’t have tax base to provide things like parks, road ways, etc., road development could not keep place with growth, lack of water treatment and sewage, again, not enough tax base - 12 seats allocated to city of Toronto, other 12 municipalities given single seat - Problem because people from lower council from places like Etobicoke were just appointed and only one person from each area outside of Toronto was appointed, if you’re elected by lower tier municipality you’re loyal to them but if you’re also appointed to sit on Metro council are you going to be thinking about needs of entire region or people who elected you in first place? People on original metro council didn’t take it seriously - Post 1967 Toronto had 12/32 seats to better represent population growth - More changes in 1988, 6 lower tier mayors, & 28 directly elected councillors - Chair of metro chosen by elected members - Early 1970’s other local governments emerged, Harris government eliminated lots of upper tier systems, Waterloo still two tier system - 1988 Office of the GTA reported directly to provincial cabinet minister and communicate problems - Not GTA anymore basically megacity TWO-TIER REGIONAL GOVERNMENT 1968-1975 – other regional governments emerged across Ontario Ottawa-Carleton; Niagara; Sudbury; Hamilton-Wentworth At peak – 13 regional governments Currently only 6 4 in GTA (Halton, Peel, York & Durham) Niagara Waterloo Key criticism – not directly elected Ottawa-Carleton – in 1994, all were directly elected – new problems - Key critique of regional government structures is that councils are not elected, removed from scrutiny of democratic process, overtime everyone has become directly elected - upper tier members made decisions that effected lower municipalities and they had to pay for them - Mike Harris said we were over governed and there was too much overlap in Canada, Harris government wanted to reduce unfair downloading by provinces, “common sense revolution”, not everyone liked it but at least he had a plan and followed through so people were satisfied with him - When metro Toronto came together it was more expensive than running all the municipalities separately, upward pressure on salaries, mega city structure made peoples wages and benefits go up so it cost the
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