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Biology 1070

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1070
Wright& Newmaster

Text Book Summaries Hormones Lipid Soluble Hormones: include steroid hormones derived from cholesterol, move easily through the cells plasma membrane because of its lipid bilayer Water soluble Hormones: protein or peptide hormones, cannot pass through the lipid bilayer (see example 3a(iv)4) Feedback Mechanisms and Secretions of Hormones Negative Feedback Mechanisms: inhibits further release of hormones Positive Feedback Mechanisms: stimulates the process to continue example being the release of oxytocin during child birth Interactions between Hormones Antagonistic: the effect of one hormone opposes that of another hormone Synergistic: the response of a tissue to a combination of two hormones is much greater than its response to either individual hormone. Permissive: one hormone must be present for another hormone to exert its effects. Pituitary Gland - is the size of a pea and is suspended from the base of the brain, consists of 2 lobes, anterior and posterior Hypothalamus - The area of the brain that regulars physiological responses like body temperature, sleeping, water balance Anterior Lobe Growth hormone: stimulates growth through increasing cell size and rates of cell division Prolactin: stimulates mammary glands to produce milk Luteinizing Hormone: stimulates ovulation Posterior Lobe: does not produce any hormones Ant diuretic hormone (ADH): conserves body water by decreasing urine output Thyroid Gland -is a shield shaped, deep red structure in the front of the neck thyroid hormone: affects cellular metabolism by stimulating protein synthesis, breakdown of lipids, and he use of glucose for production of ATP Fight or Flight: epinephrine and nor epinephrine, the body’s, reaction in emergencies Insulin Shock: the consequences associated with severe depletion of blood glucose Pineal gland: produces melatonin which may influence daily rhythms/ pigment melanin by melanocytes of the skin Textbook - Chapter 3a (v) The ‘three lines of defense’ 1) Keep the foreign organisms or molecules out of the body in the first place o Chemical and surface barriers 2) Attack any foreign organisms or molecule of cancer cell inside the body o Internal cellular and chemical defenses become active 3) Destroy a specific type of foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside o Immune response which destroys specific target consists of nonspecific mechanisms that are effective against any foreign organisms Defensive Proteins Interferons: before certain virally infected cells die, they secrete small proteins call interferon’s -they help get rid of virus infected cells by attracting macrophages -help protect uninfected cells from all strains of viruses Autoimmune disorders: occur when the immune system fails to distinguish between self and nonself and attacks the tissues or organs of the body. Pyrogens: fevers are caused by these, chemicals that raise the thermostat in the brain MHC markers: declare cells as safe Hay fever:* Systemic lupus erythematosis Textbook – Chapter 3b(i) Composition of blood: plasma, thin layer of platelets and white blood cells and red blood cells Blood clotting: platelets are essential to blood clotting formed in the red bone marrow Blood vessels and blood flow: Veins heartarteryarteriolecapillaryvenuleveinheart Arteries: are muscular tubes that transport blood away from the heart, delivering it rapidly to the body Capillaries: are microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules, the exchange of material between the body and the blood cells Veins: return blood to the heart (3layers) 65% of the body’s blood Heart, coronary circulation and cardiac cycles Pulmonary Circuit: transports blood to and from the lungs (right side) Systemic Circuit: transports blood from blood and body tissues, prevents oxygenated blood from mixing with o2 Coronary Circulation: services the tissues of the heart Coronary Arteries: ensures that the heart receives a rich supply of o2 and nutrients Internal conduction system of the heart Electrocardiogram, blood pressure measurements o Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels o Systolic pressure: 110-120, diastolic pressure: 70-80 Lymphatic System o Consists of a lymph which is a fluid identical to interstitial fluid o Functions include : return excess interstitial fluid to the blood stream, transport products of fat digestion from the small intestine to the blood stream, help defend against disease causing organisms Plasma: straw colored liquid that makes up about 55% of the blood (transporter) Hemoglobin: the oxygen binding pigment that is responsible for the cells red color (280 mill) -made up of 4 subunits, each made of a polypeptide chain and a heme group which includes an iron ion that binds to the oxygen. When binds to the oxygen it is called oxy hemoglobin Hypertension: high blood pressure “silent killer” Platelet plug: is formed when platelets cling to strings of collagen, which then swell. Fibrin clot: a protein web that traps blood cells from escaping. SA node: the tempo of the heartbeat is set by a clusters of specialized cardiac muscle cells ECG/EKG: is an image of the electrical activities of the heart Sphygmomanometer: blood pressure is measured with this Textbook – Chapter 3b (ii) Structure and digestive function of the stomach o Is a muscular sac, stores food and regulates the release of food, liquefies food, chemical digestion of proteins Structure and digestive and absorptive function of the small intestine o Chemical digestion/absorption most occurs in the jejunum and ileum The role of the liver and pancreas in digestion o Not a part of the GI tract, pancreas secretes juices that combine with bile which breaks down nutrient into their component building blocks: proteins to amino acids, carbs to monosaccharide’s fatty acids to glycerol o Liver monitors blood contents, primary roles is to secrete bile, removes poisonous substances o Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, gall bladder releases bile, when substances in bile become upset cholesterol and other substances form a gallstone Structure and digestive a
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