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BIOL 1070 Lecture Notes - Biopsy, Cecum, Microvillus

Course Code
BIOL 1070
Wright& Newmaster

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Text Book Summaries
Lipid Soluble Hormones: include steroid hormones derived from cholesterol, move easily through the cells plasma
membrane because of its lipid bilayer
Water soluble Hormones: protein or peptide hormones, cannot pass through the lipid bilayer (see example
Feedback Mechanisms and Secretions of Hormones
Negative Feedback Mechanisms: inhibits further release of hormones
Positive Feedback Mechanisms: stimulates the process to continue example being the release of oxytocin during
child birth
Interactions between Hormones
Antagonistic: the effect of one hormone opposes that of another hormone
Synergistic: the response of a tissue to a combination of two hormones is much greater than its response to either
individual hormone.
Permissive: one hormone must be present for another hormone to exert its effects.
Pituitary Gland
- is the size of a pea and is suspended from the base of the brain, consists of 2 lobes, anterior and posterior
- The area of the brain that regulars physiological responses like body temperature, sleeping, water balance
Anterior Lobe
Growth hormone: stimulates growth through increasing cell size and rates of cell division
Prolactin: stimulates mammary glands to produce milk
Luteinizing Hormone: stimulates ovulation
Posterior Lobe: does not produce any hormones
Ant diuretic hormone (ADH): conserves body water by decreasing urine output
Thyroid Gland
-is a shield shaped, deep red structure in the front of the neck thyroid hormone: affects cellular metabolism by
stimulating protein synthesis, breakdown of lipids, and he use of glucose for production of ATP
Fight or Flight: epinephrine and nor epinephrine, the body’s, reaction in emergencies
Insulin Shock: the consequences associated with severe depletion of blood glucose
Pineal gland: produces melatonin which may influence daily rhythms/ pigment melanin by melanocytes of the skin
Textbook - Chapter 3a (v)
The ‘three lines of defense’
1) Keep the foreign organisms or molecules out of the body in the first place
o Chemical and surface barriers
2) Attack any foreign organisms or molecule of cancer cell inside the body
o Internal cellular and chemical defenses become active
3) Destroy a specific type of foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside
o Immune response which destroys specific target consists of nonspecific mechanisms that are
effective against any foreign organisms
Defensive Proteins
Interferons: before certain virally infected cells die, they secrete small proteins call interferon’s
-they help get rid of virus infected cells by attracting macrophages
-help protect uninfected cells from all strains of viruses
Autoimmune disorders: occur when the immune system fails to distinguish between self and nonself and attacks
the tissues or organs of the body.
Pyrogens: fevers are caused by these, chemicals that raise the thermostat in the brain
MHC markers: declare cells as safe
Hay fever:*
Systemic lupus erythematosis
Textbook Chapter 3b(i)
Composition of blood: plasma, thin layer of platelets and white blood cells and red blood cells
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Blood clotting: platelets are essential to blood clotting formed in the red bone marrow
Blood vessels and blood flow:
Veins heartarteryarteriolecapillaryvenuleveinheart
Arteries: are muscular tubes that transport blood away from the heart, delivering it rapidly to the body
Capillaries: are microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules, the exchange of material between
the body and the blood cells
Veins: return blood to the heart (3layers) 65% of the body’s blood
Heart, coronary circulation and cardiac cycles
Pulmonary Circuit: transports blood to and from the lungs (right side)
Systemic Circuit: transports blood from blood and body tissues, prevents oxygenated blood from mixing with o2
Coronary Circulation: services the tissues of the heart
Coronary Arteries: ensures that the heart receives a rich supply of o2 and nutrients
Internal conduction system of the heart
Electrocardiogram, blood pressure measurements
o Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels
o Systolic pressure: 110-120, diastolic pressure: 70-80
Lymphatic System
o Consists of a lymph which is a fluid identical to interstitial fluid
o Functions include : return excess interstitial fluid to the blood stream, transport products of fat digestion
from the small intestine to the blood stream, help defend against disease causing organisms
Plasma: straw colored liquid that makes up about 55% of the blood (transporter)
Hemoglobin: the oxygen binding pigment that is responsible for the cells red color (280 mill)
-made up of 4 subunits, each made of a polypeptide chain and a heme group which includes an iron ion that binds
to the oxygen. When binds to the oxygen it is called oxy hemoglobin
Hypertension: high blood pressure “silent killer”
Platelet plug: is formed when platelets cling to strings of collagen, which then swell.
Fibrin clot: a protein web that traps blood cells from escaping.
SA node: the tempo of the heartbeat is set by a clusters of specialized cardiac muscle cells
ECG/EKG: is an image of the electrical activities of the heart
Sphygmomanometer: blood pressure is measured with this
Textbook Chapter 3b (ii)
Structure and digestive function of the stomach
o Is a muscular sac, stores food and regulates the release of food, liquefies food, chemical digestion of
Structure and digestive and absorptive function of the small intestine
o Chemical digestion/absorption most occurs in the jejunum and ileum
The role of the liver and pancreas in digestion
o Not a part of the GI tract, pancreas secretes juices that combine with bile which breaks down nutrient into
their component building blocks: proteins to amino acids, carbs to monosaccharide’s fatty acids to
o Liver monitors blood contents, primary roles is to secrete bile, removes poisonous substances
o Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, gall bladder releases bile, when substances in bile become upset
cholesterol and other substances form a gallstone
Structure and digestive and absorptive function of the large intestine
o Absorb most of the water remaining, store feces, to eliminate feces from the body
o Cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal
Nerves and hormones of digestion
o Gastrin: enters the bloodstream and circulates throughout the body and increases the production of
gastric juices
Bile: a mixture of water, ions, cholesterol, bile pigment, bile salts, digestion of fats.
Villi: increase absorptive surface Microvilli: each villi contains microscopic projections, which increase the surface
area of the small intestine
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