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BIOL*1090 Lecture 2.pdf

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BIOL 1070
T.Ryan Gregory

Lesson 1 - Types of Cells▯ ▯ All cells fall into two categories:▯ ▯ Prokaryotes: Structurally simple cells such as bacteria▯ Eukaryotes: Structurally complex cells such as protists, fungi, plants, and animals▯ ▯ Prokaryotes greatly outnumber every other life form on earth. Why is that? If things are simpler, does it not mean that they should disappear due to evolution? Complexity ≠ success.▯ ▯ Common features of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes:▯ ▯ - Plasma membrane▯ - DNA▯ - Metabolic pathways ie glycolysis▯ - Conservation of energy by ATP▯ - Similar mechanisms for protein synthesis▯ - Similar mechanisms of photosynthesis▯ - Similar mechanisms for inserting membrane proteins▯ - Proteasomes▯ ▯ Unique features of Eukaryotes: ▯ ▯ - Nucleus▯ - Chromosomes composed of DNAand associated proteins (chromatin)▯ - Membranous organelles in cytoplasm▯ - Specialized organelles for respiration▯ - Complex cytoskeletal systems▯ - Flagella and cilia▯ - Cell walls▯ - Phagocytosis▯ - Cell division by microtubule that separates chromosomes▯ - Two copies of genes, one from each parent▯ - 3 different RNA polymerases▯ Sexual reproduction requires meiosis and fertilization▯ ▯ structures with a specialized function. ▯s have “compartments”. These are membranous ▯ However, not every part of the cell is bound by membranes. These are called “components” i.e. microfilaments, microtubules.▯ ▯ In reality, things inside a cell are always moving around. This makes it harder to study cells, because the organization is with respect to time and space. ▯ ▯ In spite of this, cellular activities have great precision. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Cellular communication▯ Intracellular communication: How do cells talk to each othe
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