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Lecture

1070 Lecture Notes.pdf

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1070
Professor
T.Ryan Gregory
Semester
Winter

Description
*DEFINITIONS Bio 1070 Lecture 1: Learning outcomes: - begin to build scientific vocabulary - identify most important information - discuss general factors that can affect biodiversity - identify traits of organisms/species that relate to species survival and/or invasion ability What factors contribute to threats to native freshwater mussel biodiversity in the Great Lakes region? - invasive species: i.ez.ebramussels ; competition for resources because they outnumber them, have higher ability to attach to things, higher dispersal ability, can attach to the native mussels, size: don’t require as many resources if smaller - overfishing of native host fish species (human fishing; raccoon fishing) What is a trait in evolutionary biology? Trait: a characteristic; something that differentiates one species from another Unionid life cycle: Glochidia --> fish host --> juvenile --> Adult UNIONID BATES AND TRAPS TECHNIQUES Unionid larvae: glochidia: cannot swim or crawl; attach to host fish gills Ovisacs: glochidia enclosed in membranous capsules that mimic host prey Conglutinates: packets of glochidia, eaten by host or stick to host Mussel physically grips host and pumps glochidia over gills Bio 1070 Lecture 2: Learning outcomes: - begin to recognize factors (both external and internal) that influence a species success or peril under particular conditions - understand the major levels of biological organization and the nature and importance of variability ateachofthem - perform some basic data collection and analysis and consider sources of error Clicker question: Which of the following contributes the most to the extraordinary success of Dreissena polymorpha in the Great Lakes region? 500. Veliger larvae that disperse freely Unionids Dreissenids What is larval form? Glochidia Veligers Does it need host? Host-dependent Not host-dependent. Can settleonandattachtoany solidsurface Larvae dispersal? Larvae dispersed by host Dispersed in water Clicker Question: Which of the following is TRUE with regard to the mussels having veliger vs. glochidia larvae? Bi-model distribution? Variability at multiple biological scales - Abundance: - Intraspecific Variation: - Diversity: - Disparity: - Reasons for variation in thickness : adapted to different water (current) conditions; adapted to different predators (thin=easier to crack); different temperatures in water - Why is the thin one not thickR?equires a lot of resource to create a thicker shell; if unnecessary they will not accumulate more shell material - Mutations - Point mutations:base pair substitution in DNA sequences - Chromosome mutations: rearrangement or fusing of chromosome segments - Gene duplications: duplication of short stretch of DNA - Gene duplications (polypeptide): duplicating all DNA - Natural Selection: non-randomdifferences in survival/ reproduction among individual entities on the basis of differences in heritable characteristics - Genetic Drift: evolution by chance due to sampling error; changes in allele frequencies that is random - e.g. if you choose a certain sample to reproduce and randomly a certain phenotype is selectedmorethentheother,theoffspringwillexpress thephenotypemore - CAUSE #1: BOTTLE NECK: sudden, severe reduction in population size; loss of individuals NOT related to particular traits (i.e. happens at random) - CAUSE #2: FOUNDER EFFECTS: e.g. isolation of certain subset that doesn’t accurately display the original population (between main land and island) - Gene Flow: movement of genes among populations; causes the two populations in the exchange to become genetically more similar to each other Sample Exam Question : A careful study of DNA sequences reveals that a population of mussels in a particular river has very little genetic variation in it. Which of the following explanations would youREJECT? Great deal of movement of mussels into this riverfrom nearby lakes Bio 1070 Lecture 4: - The formation of new species is called speciation - Most often, this involves an ancestral speciessplitting or branchinginto two descendant species;this is calledcladogenesis - What matters is the pattern of branching “t(pology” ); the order of the tips (“ terminal nodes”) is arbitrary Bio 1070 Lecture 5: - Learning outcomes: - Apply several of the evolutionary concepts covered to date to the issue of trait evolution - To understand the basic processes involved in the loss and gain of biologicaldiversity (extinction and speciation) - To apply - When did an adaptation evolve in a lineage ?hylogenetic analysis of trait evolution - How many times has a trait evolved independently? - Homology (=inherited from common ancestor) - Homoplasy (=evolved independently) - Has a trait been lost in some lineages? Gains versus losses of traits Bio 1070 Lecture 11: - iClicker question: Which statement is true about the within-habitat diversity indices for the three woodlots? The Shannon Diversity index increases to nearly double when totalspecies is doubled - iClicker question: Which statement is true about the across habitat diversity indT icees?eta diversity and Gamma diversity for Old Field and Maple Ridge Woods are the same - Learning outcomes: - Understand how species distributions are limited or expanded by abiotic factors and dispersal ability - Biomes: ecosystems at a global scale - On a very large scale, broad patterns may relate to a smallnumber of factors (e.g. temperature, precipitation) - What about within biomes? What factors will affect biodiversity? - proximity to humans, seasonal changes, water sources, light availability, migration patterns, altitude, air quality, food availability, invasive species - categorizeby biotic (4) andabiotic factors (7) - add to biotic: interaction with other species (ecological engineers, trophic levels, rates of reproduction, competition, etc) - How would you determine which abiotic factor is limiting the distribution of a species? Bio 1070 Lecture 14: - Learning outcomes: - Discuss processes that can explain why a species is found where it is - Recognize how these processes operate at multiple scales How did the tree become secluded where it was? - Endemism:the species evolved here and is only found in this region - Range expansion: it evolved elsewhere (relatively nearby) and then expanded its range to also include this area - Range shift: It evolved elsewhere and used to be found elsewhere, but its range shifted to include only the current distribution and not the former distribution - Long-range dispersal/non-native/introduced/invasive: It arrived from somewhere else not nearby (e.g. Seeds transported by migratory birds? Introduced by humans?) - Vicariance: it evolved elsewhere but then the physical landscape itself changed - Natal: movement of young from their birthpl
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