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Lecture 10

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
David Dyck

Lecture 10 Slide 1:  Nonspecific defenses: physical barriers and chemical barriers (skin). If pathogen surpasses that, nonspecific chemical intercellular attempt to remove the pathogen.  Specific defenses: immune system, with specificity, when others don’t work Slide 2: Although nonspecific defense is said not to adapt, it is still able to know what a healthy bacteria is. Examples : Tears ( wash away bacteria with lysosomes), Skin (physical barrier, while being acidic, oil and sweat glands also help), Large intestine ( has microbes in it), Respiratory Tract ( mucus lining), Stomach ( acidic), Saliva ( kills the bacteria in mouths, and off of teeth), Bladder (urine washes away microbes in urethra) Slide 3: Second Line of Defense  Defensive cells : Phagocytic ( engulfs the cell), Eosinophils ( kills parasites) , Natural Killer Cells ( kills invading cells)  Defensive proteins : Interferons ( slow the spread of the virus in the body), Complement System ( stimulates histamine release, increases inflammation, kills bacteria while promoting phagocytic)  Inflammation : Widening of blood vessels and increased permeability of capillaries, results in swelling, pain, redness and heat brings in defensive cells and speed healing  Fever : unusually high temperature - slows bacteria, while speeding up the body’s immune system Slide 4 : Process Inflammation Foreign object in skinBlood vessels widen, blood flow carries defensive cells to the area, along with chemical which remove toxins ( causes redness) heat increases the metabolic rate of cells , speeding up healingIncreased permeability in the capillaries allows for swelling where fluids containing defensive chemicals, oxygen, nutrients etc. seeps into the injured area Pain : reduces movement, allowing for healing to occur Complement destroys the bacteria, while phagocytic cells engulf it (some are present at the site, some migrate there) Slide 5 : Process of Protein based Defense Complement system perforates the bacteria, the bacteria cannot contain a stable environment, water enters the cells, and bacteria bursts Slide 5 : Process of Phagocytic Cell engulfs the bacteria, where lysosomes
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