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Lecture 1


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University of Guelph
BIOL 1090
Andrew Bendall

Lecture 1 Genetics o Fundamental to life Function of Genetic Material o Replication > genotypic function Important for DNA surviving across generations o Gene expression phenotypic function How the gene is used Expression of individual genes Bits of the genome are regulated to make a working individual Genomes are not deterministic (be all and end all) Final phenotype is both due environment and genetics factors Can have identical DNA but appear different bc of environmental factors o Mutation evolutionary function Variation within any population Frequency of different version of different genes how natural selection works DNA o Acid o Polymer o Made of covalent bonds o Nucleotide made of phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar (2deoxyribose) and one of four cyclic nitrogenous bases o Pyrimidines T and C (single bonded) o Purines A and G (double bonded) o Joined by phosphodiester bonds links each nucleotide in a chain o DNA is a polar molecule o 5 has 3phosphate o 3 end has 3hydroxyl o Double stranded molecule anti parallel o 3 and 5 on the same end o Double helix is right handed (twist in clockwise direction) o Strands are held together through chemical forces (hydrogen bonds) o Hbonds connect nitrogenous bases o Longer pieces of DNA are more stable o Opposing strands are complementary in sequence we can predict secquence of opposite strand o A and T o C and G o A and T are connected by 2 Hbonds o C and G are connected by 3 Hbonds more stable o Most common form of DNA is called BDNA Variation within the width of the groove 2 different grooves minor and major groove o A DNA has more torque More compact o Z DNA left twist o We have 2 meters worth of DNA o Diameter of nucleus is 0.006 mm o In chromosomes large amount of protein large fraction of that protein is histones histones small globular protiens, highly basic (contains basic amino acids) Non histone proteins (some are acidic, rna) o DNA is condensed Nucleosomes double stranded DNA wraps around them in super coil 146 base pairs wrap around nucleosome Nucleosome is composed of 8 histones (4 differents kinds linker DNA varies from 8 to 114 nucleotide pairs 2 molecules of H2a + 2 H2b + 2 H3 + 2 H4 octamer of histones Complete nucleosome has Histone 1 clamps DNA in place
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