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Lecture 2

BIOL 1090 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Pas De Deux, G1 Phase, G2 Phase


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1090
Professor
Andrew Bendall
Lecture
2

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Cell Division – Mitosis; Lecture #2
Chapter 2 pp. 23-26 (5th and 6th edion)
Mitosis
Cellular organelles and cytoplasmic contents are divided more or less equally between daughter
cells.
Endoplasmic reculum and Golgi complex are fragmented at the me of division and reformed
in the daughter cells.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are randomly divided between daughter cells.
However, nuclear chromosomes must be duplicated exactly and distributed equally and exactly
to daughter cells.
Cell division goes through a series of stages that, collecvely, are called the cell cycle.
o
oG1 phase (Gap 1)
growth, cellular metabolism
oS phase (Synthesis)
DNA replicaon (chromosome duplicaon)
oG2 phase (Gap 2)
preparaon for mitosis
oM phase (mitosis)
chromosomal pas de deux and cytokinesis
oInterphase – the me between successive mitoses (G1 + S + G2)
oCells that are not acvely cycling may exit the cell cycle. From G1 they enter a state
called G0. These cells are said to be quiescent.
There is no invariant clock that regulates cell cycle ming in eukaryoc cells.
o
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The centrosome cycle, in which centrioles are duplicated, progresses along with the cell cycle.
o
In animal cells, the centrosomes are microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs)
o
When mitosis begins, each chromosome has been duplicated.
o
Duplicated chromosomes at metaphase condense under the in:uence of condensin.
o
Model for the role of condensin and cohesin in the formaon of mitoc chromosomes.
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