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Lecture 16

BIOL 1090 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Mitochondrion, Lynn Margulis, Endosymbiont

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BIOL 1090
Andrew Bendall

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Important because it touches everywhere inside!
Endomembrane System = inside plasma (cell) membrane!
"Certain organelles evolved from smaller prokaryotic cells that have taken up residence within
cytoplasm of larger host cell"
Symbiotic relationships!
Mitochondria ==> aerobic, heterotrophic prokaryote
Endosymbiont theory (Lynn Margulis)
How did the cell become compartmentalized?
Membranous vesicles --> their membranes are all very similar!
Extensive network of membranous canals & stacks of sacs (cisternae!)
Ex: GERD (Golgi/ER/Lysosome)
Endoplasmic reticulum / Golgi Complex / Lysosomes / Vacuoles / Vesicles
Combined surface area of cytoplasmic membranes >>> area enclosed by plasma membrane!
Endomembrane system overview:
Have 2 membranes!! (double-membraned, or sometimes even more!)
Have their own genetic material! (from their prokaryotic ancestry)
Can't just stick a chloroplast inside an animal cell and say "you're a plant cell now"!
Can be propogated by cannot be created de noro!
Endosymbiont Cells:
Stack of sheets that are asymmetrical (proteins are different from each layer) ==> Golgi!
Cleaved off "sacs" = cisternae
Sheet with membranous folds on surface, that can be cleaved off
Inside space of tube = lumen
Sheet that is rolled into a tube!
Sheets linked together to form network ==> Endoplasmic Reticulum!
Creating an endomembrane system (from "sheets")
Help shuttle materials back and forth b/w parts of cells
Endomembrane organelles = part of dynamic system
Contain unique, particular set of proteins
Perform unique set of activities
Provides compartmentation & functional diversity
Conserved in eukaryotes
Dynamic structures!
Organelles = all functionally different from each other!
For transport of macromolecules! (Secretion & uptake)
Materials transported in secretory vesicles
Continuously discharged into extracellular space
Materials sorted as membrane-bound packages
Released only when specific stimulus is detected
Secretory/Biosynthetic Pathway
Uptake! Recycling!
From outside cell surface into cytoplasm
Takes material inside cell
Endocytic Pathway
Cells utilize several membrane trafficking pathways:
Site of synthesis --> transport route --> final target sites
Ability to transport a synthesized protein to specific destinations within cell!
Ex: cell's polarity/"sorting signals"/different proteins involved (integral, motor,
Loots of aspects to consider!!
Intracellular protein transport
Lecture 16 The Endomembrane System
March 9, 2016
8:30 AM
BIOL 1090 Page 1
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