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BIOL 1500 (172)
Lecture

Biology.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1500
Professor
Marie Therese Rush

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Description
B IOLOGY U NIT1S UMMARY TABLE Use the course notes, textbook, required resources and glossary to complete the following summary table. Terms and Concepts Explanation Example Academic integrity Academic integrity is a Do not falsify documents code of ethics for teachers, students, researchers, and writers. 10 rules Academic misconduct Academic misconduct is a Plagiarism general term describing the act of perpetrating academic offences detrimental to the university’s learning environment, offences which destroy that trust we have said is essential for academic life Citation In-text citations should include the name(s) of the author(s) and the date of publication of the document. Distance Education Guide to online education Handbook Name-year system of When citing an entire work, In one such study referencing document the last name of (Anderson 1997)... the author and the year of publication. No page numbers are necessary. The citation format will vary according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited. Official warning a statement appended to a student’s record Paraphrasing Citing or putting Paraphrasing a paragraph information into your own words Plagiarism Plagiarism is a combination Stealing someone’s words , of stealing and lying about Copying or purchasing a it afterwards. It means using paper and handing it in as others’ work and your own. misrepresenting that work as your own without giving the author credit Quoting Reference Give proper credit to who wrote the information your using Unit 2 Summary Table Terms and Concepts Explanation Example Alternate hypotheses Different ideas People with different vitamin-taking habits vary in their cold susceptibility Anecdotal evidence Information based on one’s personal experience Applied (or practical) Science that seeks to solve science problem, often produces new technology or product Basic (or pure) science Done to satisfy researcher curiosity, seeks knowledge Bias Influence of research participants opinions on experimental results Blind experiment Individuals are not aware of exactly what they are predicted to experience Control Subject for an experiment that is similar experimental subject except not subject to experimental treatment. Correlation Describes a relationship between 2 factors Data Collected during hypothesis testing Deductive reasoning Using general principle to “ If people take Vitamin C predict an expected regularly, then they will observation, “if/then” catch fewer colds” statements Double blind Experimental design protocol when both research subjects and scientists performing the measurements are unaware of either the experimental hypothesis or who is in the control or experimental group Experiment Sets of actions or Same as what a mechanic observations designed to does when diagnosing a test certain hypotheses, car problem. can control conditions that may affect subject Falsifiable Observations can be false Cold example, being subjected to cold temps increases your susceptibility to catching colds Hypothesis Ideas about how things Consuming vitamin C work, Must be testable reduces risk of catching and falsifiable cold Inductive reasoning Combining a series of Vitamin C examples specific observations to discern a general principle Mean Average value of a group of measurements Objective Without bias Observation An experience, what we Ex: fruits and vegetables test in hypothesis contain a lot of vitamin c Peer review Process by which reports of scientific research are examined and critiqued by other researchers before they are published in scholarly journals Placebos False treatments in Giving people sugar pills experiments instead of medicine without them knowing Popular science literature Prediction Concerns the outcome of an action, test or investigation, result we expect from a hypothesis test Primary source Article reporting research results, written by researchers and reviewed by the scientific community Random assignment Placing individuals into experimental and control groups randomly to eliminate systematic differences between the groups Sample size Number of individuals in both the experimental and control groups Sample Small subgroup of a pop. Used in an experimental tests Sampling error Effect of chance on experimental results Scepticism Science Scientific method Making observations of Solve problem of the world, proposing preventing colds ideas, testing ideas and discarding our ideas in response to test results Scientific misconduct Scientific theory explanation for a set of Germ theory: related observations based microorganisms are cause on supported hypotheses of diseases. from several different research Secondary source Books, news media etc. Statistical significance Low probability that experimental groups differ simply by chance Statistical tests Mathematical formulations that helps scientist evaluate whether the results of a single experiment demonstrates the effect of treatment Statistics Specialized branch of math used in the eval. Of experimental data Strong inference A statement on the truth of a hypotheses made when an experiment minimizes the number of alternative hypotheses Testable Hypotheses must be Colds testable, evaluate observations, not all hypotheses are testable. Uncertainty Variable Any factor that can Vitamin C: independent change data in value variable- people who take under different the vitamin, dependent conditions, can be variable- susceptibility to independent (value can be colds freely changed) or dependent (may or may not change because of independent variable). Variance Math term for the amount of variation in a pop. Unit 3 Summary Table Terms and Concepts Explanation Example Adaptation Trait that is favoured by natural selection and increases an individual’s fitness in a particular environment Adaptationist programme Every trait an organism has Ducks have webbed feet to is adaptive in some way help them swim Alfred Russel Wallace Co-discoverer of Natural selection, also known for a hypothesis on how natural selection could contribute to speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization. Allele Alternate versions of the same gene produced by mutations Anatomical homology Similarities between Similarities between humans and apes anatomy forelimbs ie. Behaviour, genes Biogeography Distribution of species son Earlier hominins fossils earth, supports common seem closer to apes then decent because species that hominins now appear physically the same are close geographically Biological classification Field of science attempting system to organize biodiversity into discrete logical categories Biological population Individuals of the same species that live and breed in the same geographic area Charles Darwin Conceived and developed a theory of evolution, common decent: all life shares a common ancestor. British naturalist who proposed an alternate view of how species arose, different from creationism Common descent Or evolution, explained how organisms came into beings Developmental homology Multicellular organisms demonstrate numerous similarities in the process of development from fertilized egg to adult organism, all chordates derive from a single common ancestor with a particular pathway they inherited Evolution Changes in features of individuals in a biological pop. That occur over the course of generations Fitness Relative survival and reproduction of one variant compared to others in the same pop. Fossils The remains of living dinosaurs organisms left in soil or rock Gene Discrete unit of heritable info. About genetic traits. Consists of DNA that codes for a specific polypeptide- a protein or part of pro
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