It is impossible to falsify these types of statements. The result we expect from a hypothesis test: alternative hypotheses: demonstrating the truth of the then portion of a deductive statement does not prove that the if portion is true. 1. 2hypothesis testing: hypotheses cannot be proven absolutely true; it is not always possible that the true cause of a phenomenon may be found in a hypothesis that has not yet been tested. These hypotheses are instead tested using careful observation of the natural world: data: the information collected by scientists during hypothesis testing, variables: any factor that can change in value under different conditions. Independent variable: one whose value can be freely changed. Manipulated by scientists in an experimental test to measure its effect on a dependent variable: dependent variable: the variable in a study that is expected to change in response to changes in the independent variable.