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Lecture 18

Ecology Lecture 18.doc

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BIOL 2060

Ecology – Lecture 18 Lotka-Volterra Model of Predation  Discovered that L-V could show all of these factors ( ** Increased predators = higher predation) - Prey affect predators, predators affect prery - & because they aren’t synchronized (lag), this creates cycles.  Graph on the left is a mutually stable equillibrium Assumptions - Model is pretty good at accomadating these assumptions  Go round & round & get closer to where the 2 lines cross – middle; harder to get out of the middle (stable equillibrium) (red arrow pointing up shouldn’t be there).  Graph 2: Prey have refuges, so they don’t get eaten at low densities.  Graph 1: arrows pointing to centre; very stable equillibrium – predator isocline is verys steep & to the left = very efficient.  Graph 2: more spirals/cycles to get to the middle. Still stable because it ultimately ends up in the middle, but will take longer. - Huffaker (1958): 40 oranges – 20 food, 20 covered in paper. The prey increased & then when extinct, the predators did the same: the prey ate themselves out of a home.  Retry: 252 oranges & numerous petroleum jelly barriers (provide refuge) = cycling populations.  Density dependence & prey refuge; predator also eats other things - If you have a metapopulation of predators & a metapopulation of prey; the populations will coexist. - We stabilize the predator-prey interactions (neutral
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