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Ecology Unit 3

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BIOL 2060
Elizabeth Boulding

Unit 3 PopulationsSection 31 Testing for Plasticity and AdaptationKey Terms Population A group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a specific areaPhenotype Physical expression of a characteristic of an organism determined by both genetic constitution and the environmentGenotype The genetic constitution of an organismCommon garden study A type of experiment that can be used to test for genetic differences among populations by growing individuals from different populations in the same placeEcotypes A subspecies or race adapted to a particular set of environmental conditionsGenetic drift Change in gene frequencies in a population due to chance or random eventsLocal adaptation When a population survives best in its home environment when compared to others derived from other environmentsReciprocal transplant study A type of study in which clones of several populations or ecotypes are grown in different sites to test for local adaptationUnintentional experiments Studying the effects of experimental treatments that were not deliberate such as the effects of an unpredictable hurricane or the effects of unplanned humanassisted dispersal of organismsActivity for Additional Learning1What is the equation that describes the relative contributions of nature and nurture to the phenotype that is expressedPhenotypeGenotypeEnvironment2How did Bonnier 1890 conduct his experiment to test for acclimationdevelopmental plasticity in alpine plantsWhat were his resultsBonnier conducted a transplant experiment He produced genetically identical clones of a single plant and transplant one into a lowland site and the other into an alpine siteHe then made measurements and drawings comparing each pair of plants These results show ed that the phenotypic differences between these plants were caused by developmental plasticity a single genotype was able to produce morphologically different phenotypes in response to the environment3How did Turreson 1925 conduct his experiment to test for genetic variability among plant populations What were his resultsGote Turesson 1925 used a common garden study in which representatives from different populations that had distinctive growth forms which he called ecotypes were grown under the same environmental conditions in a common location When grown in a common garden they retained variability in stem length these persistent differences provided support for his hypothesis of genetic differences among populations4What two things would you need to demonstrate in comparative studies to infer that adaptation has occurredTo demonstrate adaptation you would have to show that 1 phenotypic differences among populations are based on genetic differences using a common garden studyYou would also need to demonstrate that 2 each population survives best in its home environment local adaptation when compared to others derived from other environments5Draw a diagram of the results of the study by Clausen and colleagues 1940 on Potentilla glandulosa and use arrows to indicate which comparisons are being made when testing for a genetic differences between individuals and b local adaptationThe null hypothesis was that if plasticity was the only cause of the variation in morphology in this species then you would expect that plants grown in a common garden would look the same The results indicate that there were differences in phenotypes in the same environment
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