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Ecology Unit 4

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BIOL 2060
Elizabeth Boulding

Unit 4 Population InterationsSection 41 Population InteractionsKey Terms Interspecific interactions Interactions between individuals of two different speciesIntraspecific interactions Interactions between two individuals of the same speciesMutualism Interactions between individuals of different species that benefit both partiesPredation A relationship in which one living organism serves as the food source of another organism that it killsParasitism A relationship between two species in which one benefits and the other is harmed but not killed directlyCompetition Any interaction that is mutually detrimental to both participants occurring between species that share limited resourcesCommensalism Relationship between two species that is beneficial to one but neutral or of no benefit to the otherAmensalism Relationship between two species in which one is inhibited or harmed while the other is unaffectedNeutralism An interaction between individuals of two different species in which neither benefitsCoevolution A reciprocal evolutionary interaction between two or more speciesCoevolutionary arms race Species interactions in which all members are actively changing through evolution with each adaptation leading to a counteradaptationActivity for Additional Learning1List six types of population interactions and the effects of the interaction on each of the individuals positive 0neutral and negativemutualism involves a positive effect on both individuals ie predation or parasitism provides a benefit to one individual at the expense of the other individual ie competition results in a negative impact on both individuals ie commensalism describes interactions in which one individual benefits and there is no effect of the interaction on the other ie 0amensalism is an interaction in which there is no effect on one individual but a negative effect on the other ie 0neutralism is an interaction in which there is no effect on either individual ie 002List two ways that biotic factors differ from abiotic factors as selective forces in natureOrganisms evolve similar solutionsie convergence in their morphological physiological and behavioural traitsin response to similar abiotic conditions in the environment However Biotic selective factors can cause populations to specialize on specific microsites within a habitat promoting greater diversity within communitiesAnother way that biotic factors differ from abiotic selective forces is that they may result in coevolution of the characteristics of the interacting populations ie not only does a predator impose selective forces on its prey but the prey may also influence the evolution of the predatorThis may result in a coevolutionary arms race Section 42 Competition and the NicheKey Terms Exploitative competition Utilization of a shared and limiting resource by two or more individuals Selfthinning Reduction in population density due to intraspecific competition as a stand of plants increases in biomassInterference competition A form of competition involving direct antagonistic interactions between individualsAllelopathy The negative effect of plant metabolic products on the growth and development of other nearby plantsNiche The environmental factors that influence the growth survival and reproduction of a speciesRealized niche The actual niche of a species whose distribution is restricted by biotic interactionsFundamental niche The physical conditions under which a species might live in the absence of interactions with other speciesActivity for Additional Learning1Which type of competition is characterized by selfthinningProvide examples of organisms that display this type of competition
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