BIOL 2060 Lecture Notes - Detritivore, Species Richness, Directional Selection
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Chapter 55: Community Ecology
55.1 What Are Ecological Communities
•The species that live and interact in an area constitute an ecological
Communities are loose assemblages of species
•Ecological communities are not assemblages of organism that move together
as units when environmental conditions change. Rather, each species has
unique interactions with its biotic and abiotic environment.
The organisms in a community use diverse sources of energy
•A trophic level consists of the organisms whose energy source has passed
through the same number of steps to reach them.
• Plants and other photosynthetic organisms constitute a trophic level called
photosynthesizers or primary producers. The produce energy rich organic
molecules that nearly all other organisms consume.
•Heterotrophs consume the energy-rich organic molecules produced by primary
•Organisms that eat plants constitute a trophic level called primary
•Organisms that eat herbivores are called secondary consumers.
•Organisms that eat the dead bodies of organism or their waste products are
called detritivores or decomposers.
•Organisms that obtain their food from more than one trophic level are called
omnivores. Many species are omnivores; trophic levels are often not clearly
•Biomass: the weight of living matter.
•Distributions of energy and biomass for a particular ecosystem usually have
similar shapes. Variations in their dimensions depend on the nature of the
dominant organism at each trophic level and how they allocate their energy.
•In most terrestrial ecosystems, photosynthetic plants dominate.
•Relative to the biomass of plants, the biomass of herbivores is larger in
grasslands than in forests.
•In most aquatic ecosystems, the dominant photosynthesizers are bacteria and
protists which have such high rates of cell division that a small biomass of
photosynthesizers can feed a much larger biomass of herbivores, which grow
and reproduce more slowly (inverted distribution of biomass).
•Detritivores transform detritus into free mineral nutrients that can again be
taken up by plants. If there were no detritivores, nutrients would eventually be
tied up in dead bodies, where they would be unavailable to plants.
55.2. What Processes Influence Community Structure
•Interactions of organism with one another:
oPredation or parasitism: interactions in which one participant is
harmed, but the other benefits (+/- interactions).
oCompetition: interactions in which two organisms use the same
resources and those resources are insufficient to supply their combined
needs (-/- interactions).
oMutualism: interactions in which both participants benefit (+/+
oCommensalism: interactions in which one participant benefits but the
other is unaffected (+/0 interactions).
oAmensalism: interactions in which one participant is harmed but the
other in unaffected (0/- interactions).
•These influence the population densities of species.
•May also restrict the range of environmental conditions under which species
•If there were no predators or pathogens, most species would be able to persist
under a broader array of abiotic conditions that they do in the presence of
•Presence of mutualists may increase the range of physical conditions under
which a species can persist.
Predation and parasitism are universal
•Predation and parasitism are universal processes.
•Predators are typically larger than and live outside the bodies of their prey.
•PREDATOR AND PREY POPULATIONS OFTEN OSCILLATEL growth of a
predator population nearly always lags behind growth in its prey population.
•PREDATORS MANY RESTRICT SPECIES’ RANGES: predators may also
restrict the habitat and geographic distribution of their prey.
•MIMICRY EVOLVES IN RESPONSE TO PREDATION:
oPredators do not capture prey individuals randomly. Prey individuals
vary in ways that make them more or less susceptible to being
oA palatable species may mimic an unpalatable or noxious one—
Works because a predator that captures an individual of an
unpalatable or noxious species learns to avoid other prey
individuals of similar appearance.
If a predator captures a palatable mimic; learns to associate
palatability with the appearance of that prey.
Directional selection causes unpalatable species to evolve away
from their mimics and can be maintained only if the mimic
evolves toward an unpalatable species faster than the
unpalatable species evolves away from it (happens if the mimic is
less common that the unpalatable species).
oTwo or more unpalatable or noxious species may converge to resemble
one another –Mullerian mimicry.
All species of this mimicry benefit when inexperienced predators
eat individuals of any of the species because the predators learn
that all species of similar appearance are unpalatable.
•HOSTS RESIST INFECTION BY MICROPARASITES
oFor a microparasite population to persist in a host population, at least
one new host individual must become infected with the microparasite
before each infect host dies.
oA microparasite can readily invade a host population dominated by
susceptible individuals but a point is reached at which infected
individuals do not transmit the infection to at least one other individual.
The dies out until a sufficiently dense population of susceptible hosts
Competition is widespread because all species share resources
•Resources sharing influences the abundances and distributions of species only
if individuals reduce the ability of others to access resources, either by
interfering with their activities—interference competition—or by reducing
the available resources –exploitation competition.
•Intraspecific competition—competition among individuals of the same species
—may result in reduced growth and reproductive rates form some individuals,
may exclude some individuals from better habitats, and may cause the deaths
oIs a primary cause of the density-dependent birth and death rates.
•Interspecific competition—competition among individuals of different species—
affects individuals in the same way; a superior competitor can prevent all
members of another species from using a habitat competitive exclusion
•COMPETITION MAY RESTRICT SPECIES’ HABITAT USE: competition among
sessile animals may also restrict their habitats distribution.
•COMPETITION MAY RESTRICT SPECIES’ RANGES: a species can restrict the
range of another species by reducing populations of shared prey to such low
levels that the other species cannot persist.
Commensal and amensal interactions are widespread
•Amensalisms are widespread and inevitable interactions.
Most organisms participate in mutualistic interactions.
55.3 How Do Species Interaction Cause Trophic Cascades?
•A progression of indirect effects across successively lower trophic levels
One predator can affect many different species
•Trophic cascades may have effects across multiple and very different
ecosystems because individuals of many species move from one habitat type
Keystone species have wide-ranging effects
•A species that exerts an influence out of proportion to it abundance is called a
keystone species; may influence both the species richness of communities
and the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems.
•Keystone species are not necessarily predators. A plant species that serves as
food for many different animals can also be a key stone species.
55.4 How Do Disturbances Affect Ecological Communities?
•Disturbance is an event that changes the survival rate of one or more species
in an ecological community; may remove some species from a community, but
may open up space and resources for other species.
•Keystone species generate disturbance, so do physical events.
Succession is a change in a community after a disturbance
•Change in composition of an ecological community following a disturbance is
•Primary succession begins on sites that lack living organisms.
•Secondary succession begins on sites where some organisms have survived
the most recent disturbance.
55. 1 what are ecological communities: the species that live and interact in an area constitute an ecological community. Communities are loose assemblages of species: ecological communities are not assemblages of organism that move together as units when environmental conditions change. Rather, each species has unique interactions with its biotic and abiotic environment. The organisms in a community use diverse sources of energy: a trophic level consists of the organisms whose energy source has passed through the same number of steps to reach them. Plants and other photosynthetic organisms constitute a trophic level called photosynthesizers or primary producers. Many species are omnivores; trophic levels are often not clearly distinct: biomass: the weight of living matter, distributions of energy and biomass for a particular ecosystem usually have similar shapes. Variations in their dimensions depend on the nature of the dominant organism at each trophic level and how they allocate their energy.